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Urban Development

Dynamic Ulaanbaatar—photographs from 1990s and the present

Jim Anderson's picture
Also available in: Mongolian
One regret from my time in Mongolia in the 1990s is that I did not take more pictures. I wasn’t alone in this respect—people generally didn’t carry cameras, and whenever I pulled out my 35mm Nikon I got a lot of stares.  I had to buy and develop film in Beijing and, well, I just didn’t take nearly as many photos as I should have.  Happily, I did take some.

In the spring of 1997 I conducted the research for a study of Mongolia’s informal sector. It was the first such study in the country and there was a blank slate in terms of information.  I was fascinated by how rapidly it had grown, by questions about the size of the sector, by how people working in the informal sector see and organized themselves, by informal entrepreneurship and the spontaneity of markets.

I had as much fun as I have had in my career before or since, poring through statistics, interviewing taxi drivers and shoe shine boys. I interviewed officials on how they decide to provide permission for kiosks to set up shop and how they collaborate with informal (i.e., private, independent) buses. I worked with the NSO and the Ulaanbaatar city statistics department to do a survey to put some numbers with the stories.

Pameran Pasang Surut Urbanisasi Indonesia

Gauri Gadgil's picture
Also available in: English
Photo Credit: Andres Sevtsuk, Harvard City Form Lab

Minggu lalu saya berkunjung ke Bogor, 60 kilometer dari Jakarta dan hanya perlu satu jam lima belas menit untuk menuju kesana. Namun, diperlukan waktu tiga kali lebih lama untuk kembali ke Jakarta, karena macet akibat hujan deras.

Di lokasi lain di Jakarta, banjir terjadi di beberapa tempat. Mobil-mobil terjebak semalaman di basement tempat parkir café dan restoran di Kemang – sebuah kawasan terkenal yang sering kebanjiran akibat sistem drainase yang buruk dan kurangnya ruang hijau.

Inilah secuplik kehidupan di Jakarta yang tumbuh pesat, sebuah kawasan metropolitan yang di tahun 2028 bisa menggantikan Tokyo sebagai kota Asia dengan penduduk terbanyak.

On Display: The Highs and Lows of Indonesia’s Urbanization

Gauri Gadgil's picture
Also available in: Bahasa Indonesia
Photo Credit: Andres Sevtsuk, Harvard City Form Lab

Last weekend I visited Bogor, 60 km (37 miles) outside of Jakarta. It only took an hour and fifteen minutes to leave the city. Due to traffic caused by heavy rains, the drive back was almost three times as long.                
Elsewhere in Indonesia’s capital, neighborhoods were flooding. Cars were trapped overnight in basement parking lots of the cafes and restaurants of Kemang, a chic neighborhood where a poorly designed drainage system and lack of green space causes recurrent flooding.

Such is life in fast-growing Jakarta, a bustling metropolitan area that looks set to displace Tokyo in 2028 as Asia’s largest city by population.

Masyarakat bersatu membangun pasca bencana alam

George Soraya's picture
Also available in: English

Setelah gempa bumi besar di Yogyakarta, Indonesia, pada tahun 2006, kawasan kota dan sekitarnya harus membangun kembali atau memperbaiki sekitar 300 ribu rumah.
Pemerintah punya pilihan menyewa 1.000 kontraktor yang masing-masing akan membangun 300 rumah, atau mengerahkan 300 ribu anggota masyarakat untuk masing-masing membangun satu rumah, rumah mereka sendiri.
Dengan pemerintah sebagai pemimpin proses rekonstruksi, mengambil pilihan kedua dalam mendukung program pemerintah. Ini adalah cara kerja REKOMPAK.

Indonesia: Turning to unity for rebuilding communities after natural disasters

George Soraya's picture
Also available in: Bahasa Indonesia

Following the massive earthquake in Jogjakarta, Indonesia, in 2006, the city and surrounding areas were faced with having to build or rehabilitate about 300-thousand homes.

The government had the option of hiring 1,000 contractors to build 300 houses each.  Or we could have 300 thousand people working to build one house each - their own homes. 

With the Government of Indonesia in the lead, we took the latter approach in supporting Indonesia’s efforts to rebuild communities. This is the REKOMPAK way.

Việt Nam có thể học hỏi được gì từ Singapore về quản lý rủi ro ngập lụt

Linh X. Le's picture
 Toàn cảnh công viên Bishan-Ang Mo Kio, Singapore. Ảnh: Stefan/Flickr

Đối với người dân Việt Nam, đất nước Singapore không chỉ là một "con rồng Châu Á" mà còn rất gần gũi nhờ mối quan hệ thân mật giữa lãnh đạo nước nhà với Cựu Thủ tướng Lý Quang Diệu, người đứng đằng sau tất cả những thành công của Singapore ngày nay. Là biểu tượng của sự hiện đại và văn minh, đặc biệt với điều kiện tài nguyên thiên nhiên hạn chế, Singapore là mô hình đáng để Việt Nam học tập trên con đường phát triển theo hướng cạnh tranh, bền vững và văn minh.


Wanli Fang's picture
Also available in: English
新加坡Marina海湾的再开发项目将河道的一部分改造成水库。摄影: 10 FACE/Shutterstock


What can Chinese cities learn from Singapore?

Wanli Fang's picture
Also available in: 中文
One of Singapore’s latest redevelopment projects included the construction of a freshwater reservoir. Photo: 10 FACE/Shutterstock

Last week, I had the opportunity to attend the Singapore Urban Week along with other colleagues from the World Bank Beijing office, as well as delegates from China’s national government and participating cities. For all of us, this trip to Singapore was an eye-opening experience that highlighted the essential role of integrated urban planning in building sustainable cities, and provided practical solutions that can be readily adapted to help achieve each city’s own development vision. A couple of key lessons learned:

Putting people at the center of development strategies

This is only possible when planners always keep in mind people’s daily experience of urban space and invite them as part of decision-making process through citizen engagement.

For instance, in many cities, public transit has been perceived as a low-end, unattractive option of travel, causing ridership to stagnate despite severe traffic congestion. But in Singapore, public transit accounts for 2/3 of the total travel modal share in 2014. Moving around the city by metro is comfortable and efficient because transfers between different modes and lines are easy, with clear signage of directions, air-conditioned connecting corridors, and considerate spatial designs and facilities for the elderly and physically-challenged users. In addition, metro stations are co-located with major retail and commercial activities and other urban amenities, significantly reducing last-mile connectivity issues.

2004: Digging deep on mining

Jim Anderson's picture
Also available in: Mongolian

Continuing our series of blogs looking at the 25 year partnership between Mongolia and the World Bank, today we examine 2004, the year Mongolia’s growth rate accelerated to 10.4%.  After 15 years, real GDP per capita had finally passed the level of 1989. The country was in the midst of a mining boom, and that sector took center stage in 2004. 

Mongolia Mining Sector: Managing the Future assessed the “medium-term growth potential of Mongolia's non-fuel minerals industry, and its potential contribution to economic growth, poverty reduction, and regional development.”  The study, based on field work undertaken in 2003, took a broad approach, examining potential constraints and investor perceptions, and then recommended options to improve industry management and the investment climate. Recommendations urged mining companies to support social programs that benefit the surrounding communities, and the government to establish and maintain adequate infrastructure to meet the mining sector’s growth. “The government should address the challenges associated with mining for growth, namely, preventing the development of unsustainable fiscal policy and mounting debt; avoiding rent-seeking behavior, and, overcoming absorptive capacity constraints and adverse impacts on non-mineral exports.”

2004: Уул уурхай илүү гүн нэвтэрье

Jim Anderson's picture
Also available in: English

Албан бус орчуулга.

Монгол улс болон Дэлхийн Банкны 25 жилийн хамтын ажиллагааны түүхийг эргэн харж байгаа цувралынхаа энэ удаагийн дугаараар бид 2004 оныг авч үзнэ. 2004 онд Монголын эдийн засгийн өсөлт 10.4 хувьд хүрсэн юм. 15 жилийн дараа нэг хүнд ногдох орлого 1989 оны түвшинд очлоо. Монгол уул уурхай ид цэцэглэж, 2004 оны гол салбар уул уурхай байлаа.

“Монголын Уул уурхайн салбар” судалгаанд өгүүлснээр улс орны ирээдүйг удирдах чиглэл нь “олборлох аж үйлдвэрийг хөгжүүлж Монголын дунд хугацааны өсөлтийг бий болгох, ингэснээр эдийн засгийн өсөлтөд түлхэц болж, улмаар ядуурлыг бууруулах, бүс нутгийн хөгжлийг хангах” гэсэн байдаг. Энэ судалгаа нь 2003 онд хийгдсэн бөгөөд хөрөнгө оруулагчдын боломжит бүх хандлагыг дүгнэн үзэж, уул уурхайн салбарын менежмэнтийг сайжруулах болон хөрөнгө оруулалтын орчинг бүрдүүлэх зөвлөмж өгсөн. Мөн уул уурхайн компаниуд орон нутгийн иргэдэд  хүртээмжтэй байж нийгэмд чиглэсэн хөтөлбөрүүдийг дэмжих, төр засгийн зүгээс уул уурхайн салбарын өсөлтийг хангахуйц дэд бүтцийг бий болгохыг бас зөвлөсөн. "Уул уурхайн салбарын өсөлтийг хангахад шаардлагатай асуудлуудыг Засгийн газар шийдэх ёстой, тухайлбал, санхүүгийн тогтворгүй бодлого баримтлахаа больж, нэмж өр тавихгүй байх, байгалийн баялгийг хэт хянахгүй  байх, хилээр нэвтрэх явцад байгаа хязгаарлалт, эрдсийн бус экспортод үзүүлж байгаа сөрөг нөлөө харж үзэх”-ийг дурдсан байдаг.