Dear Phoutthasinh, Thanks for your reply, I am so happy to see a proper debate around these issues! You are right that the resettled households need to find sustainable income sources. This is the central goal of the project’s Concession Agreement. Judging whether livelihoods are sustainable (and even defining what sustainable means) is not straightforward for this or any other project- I’m going to talk about this in more detail in a future blog. But, briefly, you are right that it can’t be judged now for two main reasons: 1. It’s not true that all the consumption of the households is “given” by the project. The households do continue to receive significant support, but this does not make up a significant proportion of consumption for most households. In fact households are moving more and more towards income sources, like fishing, that are not dependent on the presence of the project. The support that remains is mostly focused around helping households establish their new livelihoods- inputs like fertilizer and extension advice, and it is only the most vulnerable households that continue to receive rice support. 2. Perhaps more importantly, in my view, the households are still adapting to a very new environment- the reservoir was only impounded in early 2008. It will take time for them to establish their livelihoods. Because of this, I would like to emphasize again that the information I am presenting in these blogs can only be seen as an update on progress. Things could change, for better or worse, along the way. Part of the reason for collecting all this data is for adaptive management- a process of adjusting project implementation to shifting realities on the ground - so that the project is ready to react to these changes. Of course the data is also going to be used to assess whether or not the households meet the income targets set out in the Concession Agreement. This will be assessed five years after resettlement- giving the households time to establish livelihoods that work in the new environment, and for the resources they rely on, such as fish stocks in the reservoir, to reach a steady state. A variety of other sources of information will also be used to assess the sustainability of livelihoods (i.e. are households taking on high levels of debt or selling off assets in order to maintain consumption?). The ultimate judgment will rest with the Resettlement Committee, with advice from the International Environmental and Social Panel of Experts, and will not be made solely on the basis of consumption levels.