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Anonymous, thanks for your comment. Your observation is consistent with the fact that income inequality in Malaysia remains at high levels. This applies to the country as a whole but also within broad segments of society and in fact within each of the ethnic groups in Malaysia. Regarding the New Economic Model, I would not pre-judge how this is going to unfold. Of course, the broad policy principles that have been announced will need to be implemented first - and implemented successfully - before any real change is going to happen. But I find it encouraging that the NEM, which was made publicly available, contains a frank assessment of the challenges facing Malaysia. The report highlights for example that the gap between rich and poor is widening in Malaysia and it does refer to many of the issues that you mention. The NEM does not stop at making assessments; it offers a way forward. The NEM proposes a whole range of policy initiatives. Affirmative action is just one of them (even though this is the one the domestic and international media focused the most on). The NEM proposes to modernize the country's affirmative action policies, by making the policy more transparent, market-friendly and targeted to the needy. To quote directly from the report on page 25(www.neac.gov.my/node/235): "A key component of inclusiveness is the fostering of equal and fair economic opportunities. Affirmative action programmes and institutions will continue in the NEM but, in line with views of the main stakeholders, will be revamped to remove the rent seeking and market distorting features which have blemished the effectiveness of the programme. Affirmative action will consider all ethnic groups fairly and equally as long as they are in the low income 40% of households. Affirmative action programmes would be based on market-friendly and market-based criteria together taking into consideration the needs and merits of the applicants. An Equal Opportunities Commission will be established to ensure fairness and address undue discrimination when occasional abuses by dominant groups are encountered (Table H)."