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Arshad - first of all, congratulations on your excellent post, raising awareness of the problem. However there is a need for recognition that Ulaanbaatar's air pollution problems also include RADON, as revealed by a holistic approach: 1: the power stations use high-ash high moisture brown coals, that also have above average uranium U content. Remarkably in the soviet data on open file in the State Geofund, the coordinates of the Shivee Ovoo Coal Deposit is effectively the same as the Shivee Ovoo Uranium Occurrence. Additionally the Geofund lists large numbers of Coal Occurences as being "Uraniferous". 2: Combustion in UB Thermo-Electric Power Plants TES #2, TES#3 and TES#4 (plus proposed #5), and many heating plants plus of course the ger areas liberate not only particulates into the air but also leave high-U residual ash and clinker behind. 3: The pulverised fuel creates enormous volumes of pulverized fuel ash (PFA) from #2, #3 and #4 that is recovered in large settling lagoons. 4: The PFA lagoons periodically become full and allowed to dry out, so causing signficant PFA dust pollution excusions into the residential areas in summer. 5: The PFA lagoons are mined (without mining license and apparently without EIAs) to free up more capacity for more PFA ash, and the PFA used to make PFA blocks, PFA bricks, PFA cement and PFA concrete. 6: As normal worldwide, the PFA (and clinker) safely locks up the traces of heavy metals that did not vapourise to be emitted with the flue gases. 7: Unfortunately the uranium content in the PFA is rather high. 8: For external pavings usage of PFA+U is not an issue. 9: Unfortunately the extensive use of PFA+U in buildinh construction materials is a very signficant issue, due to release of radioactive decay product - radon Ra gas - that is significantly carcinogenic. 10: Radon gas is to be expected in new buildings constructed in UB with PFA in their raw materials, which means virtually all new buildings. 11: Last year the World Heath Organisation WHO cut the acceptable level of Radon gas in buildings by about 50% emphasing the concern of worldwide expert opinion. 12: Radon will accumulate to dangerous levels inside buildings with tight insulation as is typical of all apartments, offices, schools and hospitals in Ulaanbaatar during winter to retain heat, and again in summer to maintain modern air conditioning, such as in the World Bank offices. 13: Gers are not immune, just because the ash from the stoves is thrown outside. In due course the ger shifts position and inevitably will be repositioned on ash. Radon can then be expected to be a health problem especially in winter when the ger is largely sealed. 14: Coal Bed Methane CBM is a sensible low cost ash-free radon-free option for heating in the eastern end of the city, being far cheaper than the proposed TES #5 and quicker to bring on-stream using CBM from the Nailakh coalfied. TES #5 will be an environmental burden on the city that needs to be avoided. 15: The proposal for a rail link from Tavan Tolgoi TT to Ulaanbaatar has been discussed but only in the context of transporting high quality, low-U, low-ash coal to Russia. The rail link could be built to standard gauge and so allow: a) higher calorific coal for TES #2, #3, #4 which would slash the coal consumption in the city, and further cut reduce the huge cost of TES #5 b) free up congestion on the Trans-Mongolian railway that is essentially due to internal coal traffic from Sharin Gol, Baganuur, Shivee Ovoo etc having national priority to ensure the cities get electricity and district heating in winter. c) cut the Ash per Kilowatt drastically, making a huge drop in UB air pollution due to particulates. d) cut the annual volume of ash and clinker that overfills the ash ponds each year, and therefore prevent the power plants becoming muck-bound so quickly and allow the dust excursions from the ash ponds to be managed and eliminated. e) reduce the loading of ash on vegetation which bioaccumulate and biomagnify the contained heavy metals. Tests on mosses and lichens near UB show exceptionally high levels of U and other heavy metals, and tests on vegetables for human consumption are warranted. A few of us are compiling this information for circulation to a wider audience in order to encourage "joined-up-thinking" regarding this large bundle of interlocking issues. An integrated holistic approach is clearly vital. Our initial review is published in the World Placer Journal vol 9, see