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Ангилал ямар учиртай вэ?

Jim Anderson's picture
Also available in: English

Албан бус орчуулга.



Нэг жилийн өмнө Монгол улсын нэг хүнд ногдох ҮНО бага-дунд, дунджаас дээш орлоготой орнуудын босгыг давж, дунджаас дээш орлоготой орон гэх тодотголтой болсон. 1990-ээд оны удаан үргэлжилсэн хямралаас хойш бид хэр хол явсныг илтгэж байна хэмээн Монголчуудын зарим нь баярлаж байсан. Бас нэг хэсэг нь хөнгөлөлттэй санхүүжилт авах боломжид ямар нөлөөлөл үзүүлэх бол хэмээн бодлогоширч байсан. Харин бусад нь яг ийм орлоготой байж чадах уу хэмээн эргэлзэж байсан. Монголын гаргасан ахиц, дэвшил гарцаагүй үнэн боловч нийт хүн амын 22% нь ойролцоогоор 2.70 долларын орлоготой буюу үндэсний ядуурлын шугамаас доогуур орлоготой амьдарч байгааг бид бүгд мэднэ. Ийм статистик байхад “дунджаас дээш орлоготой улс” байна гэдэг юу гэсэн үг вэ?
 
Өнгөрсөн долоо хоногт Монгол улс бага-дунд орлоготой ороны ангилалд буцаад шилжлээ. Яаж яваад ийм юм болов?  Энэ чухам юу гэсэн үг вэ?

What’s in a category?

Jim Anderson's picture
Also available in: Mongolian



One year ago, Mongolia was designated an Upper Middle Income Country (UMIC) when the country’s GNI per capita crossed the threshold between lower and upper middle income countries.  Some Mongolians celebrated, seeing the designation as a reflection of how far the country had come since recovering from a prolonged slump in the 1990s.  Others wondered what it means for the availability of concessional financing in the future.  And others just wondered if it was accurate.  While Mongolia’s progress is unmistakable, we also know that 22% of the population lives below the national poverty line of roughly $2.70 per day—what does it mean to be an “upper middle income country” in the face of such a statistic?

Last week, Mongolia was re-designated a Lower Middle Income Country (LMIC).  How is this possible and what does it mean?

Dari bukti ke dampak: Menjangkau masyarakat termiskin Indonesia dengan sasaran lebih baik

Maura Leary's picture
Also available in: English



Bukti dan analisis, ketika dipakai dengan baik, bisa menjadi dasar membuat kebijakan yang efektif. Namun,  apa yang terjadi ketika sebuah laporan analitis dipublikasikan dan temuannya disebarluaskan? Pada kasus terburuk, sebuah laporan bisa saja hanya tersimpan sampai berdebu di lemari.
 
Sebaliknya, pada kasus terbaik, bukti yang kuat dan yang disiapkan dengan baik bisa membawa dampak nyata bagi mereka yang kurang beruntung. Belum lama ini kami berusaha mencari tahu bagaimana mempraktikkannya untuk kasus di Indonesia.
 
Bantuan sosial yang efektif merupakan sesuatu yang bukan saja penting untuk membantu masyarakat keluar dari kemiskinan, tapi juga untuk menjaga agar mereka tidak jatuh miskin. Namun sering kali program-program dengan tujuan yang baik tidak menjangkau mereka yang paling memerlukannya. Masyarakat miskin tetap miskin, masyarakat rentan tetap berisiko jatuh ke dalam kemiskinan karena guncangan,, dan ruang fiskal terbuang untuk program-program yang tidak mencapai tujuannya.

From Evidence to Impact: reaching Indonesia’s poorest through better targeting

Maura Leary's picture
Also available in: Bahasa Indonesia



Evidence and analysis, when used well, can form the foundation for effective policymaking. But what happens once an analytical report is published, and the findings are shared? In the worst case, these reports sit collecting dust on a few lucky office shelves.

In the best cases, however, smart, rigorous, and timely evidence leads to real impact for the least well off. We set out recently to find out a bit more about how this can work in practice, looking at the case of Indonesia.
Effective social assistance is crucial not only for helping people move out of poverty, but also keeping people from falling into poverty. Too often, however, well-meaning programs do not reach those who need them the most. The poor stay poor, shocks push the vulnerable into poverty, and fiscal space is wasted on programs that are not doing what they need to do.

Myanmar: How IDA can help countries reduce poverty and build shared prosperity

Victoria Kwakwa's picture
© Meriem Gray/World Bank



This week, more than fifty donor governments and representatives of borrowing member countries are gathering in Nay Pyi Taw to discuss how the World Bank’s International Development Association (IDA) can continue to help the world’s poorest countries.

IDA financing helps the world’s 77 poorest countries address big development issues. With IDA’s help, hundreds of millions of people have escaped poverty. This has been done through the creation of jobs, access to clean water, schools, roads, nutrition, electricity and more. During the past five years, IDA funding helped immunize 205 million children globally, provided access to better water sources for 50 million and access to health services for 413 million people.

Myanmar has set a path to a bright energy future by 2030

Alan David Lee's picture
  Hong Sar/ World Bank
Photo © :  Hong Sar/ World Bank.

Kyaw San has trouble studying at night. The student from Yangon Division’s Buu Tar Suu village finds it especially difficult during the rainy season when his old solar-powered lamps cannot be charged, forcing him to study by candlelight. 
 
Win Win Nwe, a grade 5 student, also often prepares for exams by candlelight. Her family can’t always afford to buy candles, adding another obstacle to an activity many take for granted. “If we can afford candles, we buy them. If we can’t, we don’t. We struggle and do our best,” said her father Kyi Htwe.

Today, two-thirds of Myanmar’s population is not connected to the national electricity grid and 84% of rural households lack access to electricity. No power means no light, no refrigerators, no recharging phones and batteries. Small businesses can’t stay open in the evenings, and clinics cannot refrigerate medicines. Access to reliable and affordable energy is essential for a country’s development, job creation, poverty reduction and shared prosperity goals.

Naiknya kesenjangan: Mengapa ketimpangan di Indonesia naik dan apa yang perlu dilakukan?

Matthew Wai-Poi's picture
Also available in: English
In 2014, the richest 10 per cent of Indonesian households consumed as much as the poorest 54 per cent. Image by Google Maps.


Sejak tahun 1990an, ketimpangan di Indonesia naik lebih pesat dibanding negara Asia Timur manapun selain Tiongkok. Pada tahun 2002, konsumsi 10% rumahtangga terkaya setara dengan konsumsi 42% rumahtangga termiskin. Bahkan pada tahun 2014, naik menjadi 54%. Mengapa kita perlu khawatir mengenai tren ini? Apa penyebabnya, dan bagaimana pemerintah yang sekarang bisa mengatasi naiknya ketimpangan? Apa saja yang perlu dilakukan?
 
Ketimpangan tidak selalu buruk;  ketimpangan bisa memberi penghargaan bagi mereka yang bekerja keras dan berani mengambil risiko. Tetapi ketimpangan yang tinggi itu mengkhawatirkan dan bukan hanya karena alasan keadilan. Ketimpangan tinggi bisa berdampak pada pertumbuhan ekonomi, memperparah konflik, dan menghambat potensi generasi sekarang dan masa depan. Contohnya, riset baru mengindikasikan bahwa secara rata-rata, ketika porsi besar pendapatan nasional dinikmati oleh seperlima rumahtangga terkaya, pertumbuhan ekonomi melambat – sementara negara bisa tumbuh lebih cepat ketika seperlima rumahtangga termiskin menerima lebih banyak.

Rising divide: why inequality is increasing and what needs to be done

Matthew Wai-Poi's picture
Also available in: Bahasa Indonesia
In 2014, the richest 10 per cent of Indonesian households consumed as much as the poorest 54 per cent. Image by Google Maps.




Since the 1990s, inequality has risen faster in Indonesia than in any other East Asian country apart from China. In 2002, the richest 10 per cent of households consumed as much as the poorest 42 per cent. By 2014, they consumed as much as the poorest 54 per cent. Why should we be worried about this trend? What is causing it, and how is the current administration addressing rising inequality? And what still needs to be done?

Inequality is not always bad; it can provide rewards for those who work hard and take risks. But high inequality is worrying for reasons beyond fairness. High inequality can impact economic growth, exacerbate conflict, and curb the potential of current and future generations. For example, recent research indicates that, on average, when a higher share of national income goes to the richest fifth of households, economic growth slows—whereas countries grow more quickly when the poorest two-fifths receive more.

Steak, fries and air pollution

Garo Batmanian's picture
 Guangqing Liu
Photo © : Guangqing Liu

While most people link air pollution only to burning fossil fuels, other activities such as agriculture and biomass burning also contribute to it. The complexity of air pollution can be explained by analyzing the composition of the PM2.5, one the most important air pollution indicators. 
 

ยุติความรุนแรงทุกรูปแบบที่มีต่อหญิงไทยที่ทำงานบริการทางเพศ

Michele R. Decker's picture
Also available in: English
Photo: vinylmeister,  https://flic.kr/p/niguan

ในที่สุดก็ได้มาถึงประเทศไทยเพื่อฉลองรางวัลความคิดสร้างสรรค์ด้านการพัฒนา (Development Marketplace for Innovation) ด้านการป้องกันการใช้ความรุนแรงทางเพศที่เราได้รับจากกลุ่มธนาคารโลกและศูนย์วิจัยด้านความรุนแรงทางเพศ (Sexual Violence Research Initiative: SVRI) เมื่อเดือนก่อน  ทีมวิจัยของเราประกอบด้วย คุณสุรางค์ จันทร์แย้ม คุณจำรอง แพงหนองยาง ผู้บริหารมูลนิธิเพื่อนพนักงานบริการ (Sex Workers IN Group’s - SWING) และ ดร. ดุสิตา พึ่งสำราญ นักวิจัยจากมหาวิทยาลัยมหิดลซึ่งได้ไปร่วมพิธีรับรางวัล ณ กรุงวอชิงตัน ดีซี  โดยมี ดร. จิม ยอง คิม ประธานกลุ่มธนาคารโลกกล่าวและให้กำลังใจในการทำงานผู้ได้รับรางวัลทุกคน  แม้ว่าวันนี้ที่เราได้มาอยู่ไกลอีกซีกโลก ณ ห้องประชุมของ SWING ที่มีสีสรรสดใสหากแต่ความรู้สึกมุ่งมั่นที่จะทำงานด้านการป้องกันการใช้ความรุนแรงทางเพศที่ได้จากงานรับรางวัลในครั้งนั้นยังคงอยู่กับพวกเรา.
 

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