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2000: Restocking after the Dzud

Jim Anderson's picture
The winter of 1999-2000 brought a terrible dzud—a Mongolian term for a particularly harsh winter causing major losses of livestock.  According to a UNDP-GOM report, it was the worst dzud in 50 years for five of Mongolia’s aimags.  The late snowfall affected over 70 percent of the total territory of Mongolia and when fully counted by June 1, 2000, nearly 2.4 million heads of livestock were lost.  Partially as a result of this calamity, GDP growth fell to just 1.1% and agriculture’s share of GDP fell by 4 percentage points.

The suffering in rural areas was clear, and the loss of animals meant a loss of future livelihoods, as well.  As part of its relief plan, the Mongolian Government requested to reallocate the remaining proceeds of the World Bank’s Poverty Alleviation for Vulnerable Groups Project for dzud disaster relief. Over $1.3 million went to assist poor herders affected by the dzud to help them restock and maintain their livelihoods. About a third of all eligible herder households received support from the restocking project.  In subsequent years, the World Bank program in Mongolia would shift to address squarely the challenges facing herders.

On International Women’s Day, 5 facts about gender and the law in the Pacific Islands

Katrin Schulz.'s picture




There is a lot that development practitioners don’t know about the Pacific Islands. When it comes to the laws of these small island nations scattered throughout the ocean separating Asia and the Americas, most people outside the region know even less. Add the dimension of gender to the mix and you might be met with blank stares.

1999: Financing and investing in the world’s most sparsely populated country

Jim Anderson's picture
Also available in: Mongolian
Continuing with our series of 25 years in 25 days, today we look at 1999. Mongolia’s economy grew by just over 3%, and inflation checked in at the relatively modest rate of 7.6%.  In 1991, under the old regime, the official exchange rate was 7 togrogs per US$.  As the end of the decade approached, the exchange rate on the Mongolian togrog passed 1,000 per US$.  Protests against globalization erupted in Seattle, while firms in Mongolia were looking for ways to enter the global markets.

A new transport strategy focused squarely on Mongolia’s oft-cited geographical disadvantages.  Taming the tyrannies of distance and isolation looked at international trade routes, internal integration, railroads, airways, and policy, regulation, and competition in all of them.  The report, which led to a project a couple years later, also highlighted the impact of neglect in the decade since Mongolia’s transition began.  “With historically scarce financial resources, infrastructure maintenance has received a very low priority. This is now resulting in high infrastructure reconstruction costs that could have been avoided, since with just 1% of GDP allocated to its maintenance, the economic and technical life of most transport infrastructure can be greatly extended. To avoid further costly reconstruction, at least this amount should be allocated to infrastructure maintenance.”

1999 он-Дэлхийн хамгийн сийрэг хүн амтай улсад хөрөнгө оруулалт санхүүжилт хийгдэв.

Jim Anderson's picture
Also available in: English

25 жил 25 өдөр цуврал нийтлэл маань өнөөдөр 1999 оноор үргэлжилж байна.  1999 он инфляцийн түвшинг 7.6%  буюу харьцангуй боломжийн түвшинд барьж чадсан, эдийн засгийн өсөлт 3 % багахан давсан жил байлаа.  Хуучин системийн үед буюу 1991 онд ам доллартай харьцах төгрөгийн  албан ханш 7 төгрөг байв. Харин  10 жилийн төгсгөл ойртоход буюу 1999 онд ам доллартай харьцах төгрөгийн ханш 1000 төгрөг давсан байв. Тэр жил Сиатл хотноо даяарчлалыг эсэргүүцсэн хөдөлгөөн өрнөж байсан бол Монгол дахь аж ахуйн нэгжүүд дэлхийн зах зээлд гарч болох аргуудыг хайж байлаа.

1998: Mongolia’s financial, formal, and informal sectors

Jim Anderson's picture
Continuing with our series of 25 years in 25 days, today we look at 1998.  It was another year of modest growth, with agriculture and services making up for the continued decline of the industrial sector which had fallen from 43% of GDP in 1990 to only 25% by 1998.  The financial sector was recovering from a crisis the previous year—with support from an IMF program, international reserves grew by 40 percent in 1997, and inflation had decelerated from 50% in mid-1997 to 17.5% (annualized) by the end of that year.  For the year 1998, consumer price inflation stood at 9.4%.

1997: Stabilization at the heart of policy choices

Badamchimeg Dondog's picture
Also available in: Mongolian
As we continue traveling on our 25-day journey through our 25 years’ history, today we look back at the year 1997. Before digging into what the economic and social situation of the country looked like back then and what our Bank colleagues accomplished in Mongolia during the year, I want to quickly reflect on my own life back in the year.

The year of 1997 happened to be a turning point in my life as it was the year when my family moved from the far western aimag of Khovd to the capital city Ulaanbaatar after having lived in the aimag center for well over a decade. The things I remember truly well from the time are, firstly, we did not have power in Khovd, so we had to study in candlelight and cook on gas stoves imported from China or using firewood inside our apartment. Another major thing I had much excitement about at the time was that we were able to get our modest one-bedroom apartment in Khovd privatized, sell it to a local to finally move back to the big city to get closer to our relatives in the south of the country. All in all, in my thirteen year old mind back in 1997, life was somewhat tough with basic living conditions in remote areas still rather poor yet things were changing as I know it, perhaps for the good. Years later now, when I look back into 1997, in my thirty something mind, surprisingly, I get a similar picture. The social and economic situation in the country was still challenging in many ways but the country continued to transition and change, perhaps towards more good.

1997 он – Бодлогын цөм- Тогтворжилт

Badamchimeg Dondog's picture
Also available in: English
25 жилийн түүхийг 25 өдөр эргэн дурсах нийтлэл маань 1997оноор үргэлжилж байна. Дэлхийн банкны ажлын хамт олны маань хийж бүтээсэн зүйлс, Монгол улсын нийгэм эдийн засгийн нөхцөл байдлын тухай бичихийн өмнө тэр жил миний амьдралд юу тохиолдож байсныг эргэн дурсахыг хүслээ.

Malnutrition denies children opportunity and stunts economic development

Axel van Trotsenburg's picture

Nearly 50 years ago, books such as Asian Drama: An Inquiry Into The Poverty Of Nations, by the Swedish economist and Nobel laureate Gunnar Myrdal, offered a dire prediction of famine and poverty for the region in coming decades.

1996: Ядуурлын дүр зураг ба төрийн компаниудын төрх

Jim Anderson's picture
Also available in: English
Фото зургийг Дэлхийн Банкны архиваас

1996 онд Монгол улсын дотоодын нийт бүтээгдэхүүний өсөлт 2.2 хувь болон буурч өргөн хэрэглээний барааны инфляци эргэн 47 хувь болон өсөөд байлаа. Өнгөрсөн жил эхлээд байсан эмзэг бүлгийн иргэдэд чиглэсэн ядуурлыг бууруулах төсөл монгол улсын ядуурлын талаар илүү ойлголт, мэдээлэл цуглуулах шаардлага үүсгээд байв. Тухайн жил шилжилтийн эдийн засгийн ядуурлын үнэлгээ дөнгөж хийгдсэн ба амьжиргааны түвшинг жинлэж үздэг (LSMS) аргачлалд тулгуурласан анхны үнэлгээ болсон юм. 
 

1996: Taking stock of the profile of the poor, and the state of state enterprises

Jim Anderson's picture
Also available in: Mongolian
Photo courtesy of The World Bank Group Archives

In 1996, Mongolia’s GDP growth declined to 2.2% in real terms and consumer price inflation jumped back up to nearly 47%.  The previous year had seen the launch of a project on Poverty Alleviation for Vulnerable Groups, a project which called for a deeper understanding of poverty in Mongolia.  In 1996, Mongolia - Poverty Assessment in a Transition Economy was released.  This was the first poverty assessment for Mongolia to be based primarily on the Living Standard Measurement Survey (LSMS).  The poverty assessment sought to provide an in-depth understanding of the economic, demographic, regional and social characteristics of the poor, and to promote poverty reduction as an explicit objective in the formulation of public policy and resource allocation.

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