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โครงการแล็ปท็อป และแท็บเล็ตเพื่อการศึกษาขนาดใหญ่ -- บทเรียนจาก 10 ประเทศ

Michael Trucano's picture

Also available in English

Photo by eFF-BKK
ภาพถ่าย slate กระดานฉนวน โดย Napat Chaichanasiri ผ่านการใช้ลิขสิทธิ์จากครีเอทีฟคอมมอนส์

ช่วงเวลาที่ผ่านมา มีข่าวน่าสนใจจากบทความที่มาจากหลากหลายแหล่ง ตั้งแต่ จากเคนยา เรื่อง “โรงเรียนประถม 6,000 แห่งได้รับเลือกร่วมโครงการแล็ปท็อปฟรี” หรือ จากแคลิฟอร์เนียเรื่อง “ลอสแอนเจลิสเตรียมแจกไอแพดฟรี 640,000เครื่องให้นักเรียน” นี่เป็นแค่สองเรื่องจากที่มีอยู่มากมาย ที่ชี้ให้เห็นถึง การนำคอมพิวเตอร์พกพา (แล็ปท็อป และแท็บเล็ต) มาใช้ในโรงเรียนทั่วโลกอย่างรวดเร็วขึ้นและเป็นจำนวนมากขึ้น ถ้ามองจากค่าใช้จ่ายเพียงด้านเดียว ซึ่งอาจจะมีมูลค่ามหาศาลได้แล้ว ข่าวเหล่านี้บ่งชี้ว่า การนำเทคโนโลยีมาใช้ในโรงเรียน เริ่มที่จะเข้ามาเป็นศูนย์กลางของนโยบายและกระบวนการวางแผนด้านการศึกษา ในหลายประเทศทั่วทุกทวีป ไม่ว่าจะร่ำรวยหรือยากจน

โครงการแบบนี้เป็นความคิดที่ดีหรือไม่? นั่นก็ขึ้นอยู่กับปัจจัยหลายๆ อย่าง ผมพบว่า โดยส่วนมากข้อเสียของโครงการลักษณะนี้จะซ่อนอยู่ในรายละเอียด (และการวิเคราะห์ความคุ้มทุน) อย่างไรก็ตาม ไม่ว่าจะเป็นเรื่องดีหรือไม่ดี ก็ปฏิเสธไม่ได้ว่า โครงการเหล่านี้กำลังเกิดขึ้น บ้างให้ผลดี บ้างก็มากับผลเสีย ทั้งยังเกิดถี่ขึ้น และจำนวนมากขึ้น เห็นได้จากคำถามต่อไปนี้

The Philippine Jobs Challenge: How to create more and better jobs?

Karl Kendrick Chua's picture
The Philippine Jobs Challenge
By 2016, around 12.4 million Filipinos would be unemployed, underemployed, or would have to work or create work for themselves in the low pay informal sector by selling goods like many seen here in Quiapo, Manila.

The Philippines faces an enormous jobs challenge. Good jobs—meaning jobs that raise real wages or bring people out of poverty—needed to be provided to 3 million unemployed and 7 million underemployed Filipinos—that is those who do not get enough pay and are looking for more work—as of 2012.

In addition, good jobs need to be provided to around 1.15 million Filipinos who will enter the labor force every year from 2013 to 2016. That is a total of 14.6 million jobs that need to be created through 2016.

Did you know that every year in the last decade, only 1 out of every 4 new jobseeker gets a good job? Of the 500,000 college graduates every year, roughly half or only 240,000 are absorbed in the formal sector such as business process outsourcing (BPO) industry (52,000), manufacturing (20,000), and other industries such as finance and real estate.

Vietnam: Who are the corruption game changers?

Huong Thi Lan Tran's picture
Also available in: Tiếng Việt
Two members of the Black and White club join an arm-wrestling competition with the slogan 'Arm-wrestling to blow away corruption' at a youth event in Hanoi in November 2012 to promote fair education environment.

I often hear that corruption is everywhere and nothing can be done about it. I used to believe it. I still hear people saying the work on anticorruption is a waste of time. I disregard these cynical statements now.  Who made me change my attitude? The youth.

I started being inspired several years ago when a group of young women from the Vietnamese NGO Live and Learn (L&L) developed the idea of ‘a sustainable and transparent society in the hands of youth’. As clear as the idea tells, these young women wanted to engage more with youth, educate them about sustainable and transparent development and how young people can become catalysts for change and for a less corruption-prone country. The idea was among winning initiatives of the Vietnam Innovation Day (VID) 2009 More Transparency and Accountability, Less Corruption, which was co-organized by the World Bank and the Government Inspectorate.[1]

As part of the project idea, L&L would help connect and create a network of student and youth groups (Green Generation network, volunteer clubs, youth organizations, Be Change Agents, etc.) in Hanoi. These groups would be more informed of development issues such as sustainable development, corruption, and their responsibilities, and eventually would act together to build a corruption-free society. The journey was not without difficulties. During the first six months of the project, L&L was not able to get into many universities to talk with students about transparency nor integrity, let alone corruption. Even if universities were open to the idea, not many students showed interest. Some events attracted only 8 young people.

Việt Nam: Ai là người thay đổi cuộc chơi tham nhũng?

Huong Thi Lan Tran's picture
Also available in: English
Hai thành viên của CLB Đen và Trắng tham dự thi vật tay với khẩu hiệu "Vật tay thổi bay tham nhũng" tại một hoạt động của giới trẻ tại Hà Nội vào tháng 11/2012 nhằm thúc đẩy môi trường giáo dục công bằng.

Tôi thường nghe mọi người nói rằng tham nhũng ở khắp nơi và chẳng thể làm gì để thay đổi nó. Tôi đã từng tin vào điều này. Tôi còn nghe mọi người nói rằng chống tham nhũng chỉ lãng phí thời gian mà thôi. Giờ thì tôi không còn quan tâm tới những phát ngôn tiêu cực kiểu này nữa. Ai đã khiến tôi thay đổi thái độ của mình? Chính là các bạn trẻ.

Tôi bắt đầu được khích lệ vài năm trước đây khi một số thành viên nữ của một tổ chức phi chính phủ tại Việt Nam có tên là Trung tâm Sống, Học tập vì Môi trường và Cộng đồng (L&L) đưa ra ý tưởng về ‘một xã hội bền vững và minh bạch trong tay thế hệ trẻ’. Như tên ý tưởng đã thể hiện khá rõ, những bạn trẻ này muốn kết nối nhiều hơn với thanh niên, hướng dẫn cho họ về phát triển bền vững và minh bạch, và về cách mà thanh niên có thể trở thành chất xúc tác cho sự thay đổi và hướng tới một xã hội ít tham nhũng hơn. Đây là một trong những ý tưởng được trao giải Ngày Sáng tạo Việt Nam 2009 với chủ đề Nâng cao tính trách nhiệm và minh bạch, giảm tham nhũng, do Ngân hàng Thế giới và Thanh tra Chính phủ đồng tổ chức. [1]

Theo ý tưởng dự án này, L&L sẽ thiết lập và kết nối mạng lưới các nhóm sinh viên và thanh niên (Thế Hệ Xanh, các câu lạc bộ tình nguyện, các tổ chức thanh niên, chương trình Be Change Agents – Tác nhân thay đổi) ở Hà Nội. Các nhóm này sẽ được cung cấp nhiều thông tin hơn về các vấn đề phát triển như phát triển bền vững hay tham nhũng, cũng như trách nhiệm của họ, và trên hết họ sẽ cùng hành động để xây dựng một xã hội không có tham nhũng. Hành trình này đã không hề dễ dàng. Trong 6 tháng đầu tiên triển khai dự án, L&L đã không thể tiếp cận nhiều trường đại học để nói chuyện với sinh viên về minh bạch hay liêm chính, chứ chưa nói gì đến tham nhũng. Ngay cả khi các trường đại học cởi mở với ý tưởng này thì cũng không nhiều sinh viên tỏ ra quan tâm. Một số sự kiện chỉ có 8 người tham dự.

กรุงเทพฯ หลังน้ำท่วม 2554: คนยากจนเป็นอย่างไรบ้าง?

Zuzana Stanton-Geddes's picture

Also available in English

หน้าฝนมาเยือนเมืองไทยอีกแล้ว มาพร้อมกับความทรงจำถึงน้ำท่วมครั้งใหญ่ในปี 2554 ที่ส่งผลกระทบต่อผู้คนกว่า 13 ล้านคน มีผู้เสียชีวิต 680 ราย และสร้างความเสียหาย 46.5 พันล้านเหรียญสหรัฐฯ  ผลกระทบของน้ำท่วมที่มีต่อธุรกิจและห่วงโซ่อุปทานของโลกที่มีการบันทึกไว้เป็นอย่างละเอียด และเป็นข่าวพาดหัวตลอดทั้งปี 2555  แต่ว่าคนยากคนจนล่ะเป็นอย่างไรบ้าง?

น้ำท่วมคราวนั้นเปลี่ยนแปลงชีวิตชายและหญิงหลายแสนคน โดยเฉพาะผู้ที่อยู่ในสภาพง่อนแง่นไม่มั่นคงอยู่แล้ว  สองปีผ่านไปเกิดความเปลี่ยนแปลงอะไรขึ้นบ้าง?

จากการที่ได้ไปเยือนโครงการพัฒนายกระดับชุมชนแออัดสองแห่งในกรุงเทพฯ ตอนเหนือเมื่อเดือนก่อน ก็ได้พบเห็นเรื่องราวที่เป็นประเด็นสำหรับเมืองอื่นๆ ในเอเชียที่กำลังเผชิญกับการเพิ่มขึ้นของจำนวนประชากรอย่างรวดเร็ว พลังอำนาจของภัยธรรมชาติ และความแปรปรวนของสภาพภูมิอากาศ

Social and online media for social change: examples from Thailand

Anne Elicaño's picture
Also available in: ภาษาไทย


In Bangkok, a campaign to save land from being turned into another mega mall
brings people together online--and offline. Photo credit: Makkasan Hope

As a web editor and as a digital media enthusiast I’ve seen all sorts of content online: a close-up photo of someone’s lunch, a video of singing cats, selfies (for the blissfully uninitiated- these are self-portraits taken from mobile devices), and more.

Can such content change the world for the better? What if these were more substantial or inspiring, would it spur change more effectively? While messaging is important, I think the real power of social and online media is in its convening power.  The changing the world for the better bit happens when the communities formed by social media take things offline and act.

สื่อสังคมออนไลน์เพื่อเปลี่ยนสังคม: ตัวอย่างจากประเทศไทย

Anne Elicaño's picture
Also available in: English
การรณรงค์เพื่อสงวนมักกะสันไม่ให้เป็นห้างใหญ่ได้รวมพลังชุมชนทั้งในออนไลน์ และ ออฟไลน์ ภาพถ่ายโดย เราอยากให้มักกะสันเป็นสวนสาธารณะและพิพิธภัณฑ์

ในฐานะบรรณาธิการเว็บไซต์และผู้มีความกระตือรือร้นในเรื่องสื่อออนไลน์ ฉันเห็นเนื้อหามาทุกประเภท ตั้งแต่ภาพถ่ายใกล้ๆ ของข้าวเที่ยงของใครบางคน วีดิโอแมวร้องเพลง และภาพถ่ายตัวเองจากกล้องโทรศัพท์มือถือ และอื่นๆ

เนื้อหาเหล่านี้สามารถเปลี่ยนโลกให้ดีขึ้นได้ไหม? ถ้าหาก เนื้อหาเหล่านี้จะมีสาระและให้แรงบันดาลใจมากกว่านี้ จะทำให้มันมีประสิทธิภาพในการนำไปสู่เกิดการเปลี่ยนแปลงมากกว่านี้ไหม? ในขณะที่เนื้อหาก็เป็นสิ่งสำคัญ ฉันกลับคิดว่า พลังที่แท้จริงของสื่อสังคมออนไลน์คือ ความสามารถในการรวมพลังชุมชน นั่นคือ การเปลี่ยนโลกจะเกิดขึ้นได้จริงๆ เมื่อชุมชนที่รวมตัวกันจากสื่อสังคมนำสิ่งเหล่านั้นออกไปสู่โลกจริงๆ และลงมือทำ

Education in Timor-Leste has grown from the ashes

Joao dos Santos's picture

 


Timor-Leste is making great progress in education, which is considered an important
asset as the country looks to achieve sustainable, long-term development.

 

Eleven years since the restoration of Independence, Timor-Leste has now emerged from the ashes of destruction that devastated the country. During the conflict, most of the country’s infrastructure was demolished with over 95 percent of schools burnt to the ground.

Lack of infrastructure was only one of the many challenges facing Timor-Leste’s education. During the period of occupation most skilled teachers were not native Timorese and at the end of the conflict many evacuated, leaving very few trained teachers. Only a small number stayed on in the hope of driving education out of the darkness.

How to provide clean water in rural areas: an example from Vietnam

Hoang Thi Hoa's picture
Also available in: Tiếng Việt


Two kids wash their hands with clean water. Their home in Thai Binh Province, Vietnam got access to clean water in 2011. Watch video: Providing clean water in rural areas: an example from Vietnam

Despite Vietnam’s significant economic growth in recent years, there continues to be a gap between urban and rural areas when it comes to access to clean water and hygienic sanitation facilities. Many poor households in rural areas still do not have access to clean water or to a toilet. During one of our earlier field visits for the Red River Delta Rural Water Supply and Sanitation (RRDRWASS) project which began almost 10 years ago, I was struck by what a lady from a community told me. She questioned why people in urban areas have access to good water supply and sanitation services while those in rural areas do not. She said that compared to urban residents, perhaps people in rural areas were happy with a lower level of service and that the demand for better services was simply not there.

At first I thought that she might be right but I later came to realise that this is not the case. There is demand for improved services in rural areas, and more importantly, people have a fundamental right to have access to those services.

So what are the reasons for the gap?

Cấp nước sạch cho khu vực nông thôn: Bài học từ Việt Nam

Hoang Thi Hoa's picture
Also available in: English


Hai cháu bé đang rửa tay bằng nước sạch. Gia đình các cháu ở huyện Thái Bình bắt đầu có nước sạch từ năm 2011.Xem video: Cấp nước sạch cho khu vực nông thôn: Bài học từ Việt Nam

Mặc dù nền kinh tế Việt Nam đã có bước tăng trưởng đáng kể trong những năm gần đây nhưng vẫn còn khoảng cách giữa khu vực nông thôn và thành thị trong việc tiếp cận nước sạch và vệ sinh môi trường. Rất nhiều hộ gia đình nghèo ở nông thôn ngày nay vẫn chưa có nước sạch hoặc nhà vệ sinh.

Trong một chuyến khảo sát thực tế trong khuôn khổ Dự án cấp nước sạch và vệ sinh môi trường nông thôn vùng đồng bằng sông Hồng (RRDRWASS) khởi động gần 10 năm trước, những gì mà một người phụ nữ tại đây nói với tôi đã thực sự làm tôi suy nghĩ. Cô thắc mắc vì sao dân cư ở thành thị có thể tiếp cận nguồn nước sạch và các dịch vụ vệ sinh với chất lượng tốt trong khi người dân ở các vùng nông thôn lại không thể. Cô ấy nói có lẽ do người dân ở khu vực nông thôn sẵn lòng sử dụng dịch vụ chất lượng thấp so với người dân ở khu vực thành thị, và đơn giản là họ không có nhu cầu phải cải thiện chất lượng cao hơn.

Lúc đầu tôi nghĩ có thể cô ấy đúng nhưng sau đó tôi nhận ra vấn đề không phải như vậy. Người dân ở khu vực nông thôn hoàn toàn có nhu cầu về các dịch vụ với chất lượng tốt hơn, và quan trọng hơn, được tiếp cận với những dịch vụ này là một quyền cơ bản của con người.

Vậy lí do dẫn đến sự chênh lệch này là gì?

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