Las habilidades socioemocionales (también llamadas habilidades no cognitivas, del carácter o interpersonales) han ocupado recientemente el centro del debate (PDF, en inglés) sobre cómo mejorar los resultados educativos. Cada vez hay más pruebas (PDF, en inglés) de que estas habilidades son tan importantes como la inteligencia para determinar el éxito académico y profesional. Existen algunas evidencias que indican que las habilidades socioemocionales pueden potenciarse.
Socioemotional skills (also referred to as non-cognitive skills, character skills, or soft skills) have recently become part of the discourse on how to improve educational outcomes. There is growing evidence that those skills may be as important as intelligence in determining academic and professional success. There is already some evidence indicating that socioemotional skills can be encouraged.
지난 수십 년 동안 동아시아 국가를 포함한 많은 국가에서 저렴한 저숙련 노동력은 경쟁력의 원천이었다. 그러나 자동화가 진행되면서 값싼 인력과 낮은 기술은 더는 경제 성장이나 일자리를 보장할 수 없게 되었다.
Two years ago, 23-year-old Pedro Flores became a technician specializing in renewable energy—all thanks to a degree from a technical institute in Maule, located in one of Chile’s poorest regions. After completing his degree in just two years, Flores became the only person in his family to obtain an advanced degree. Today, he lives in Santiago and works for a private solar energy multinational corporation, where he earns a competitive salary that is only slightly below the average for entry-level professionals in his field, most of whom spent over five years in university.
Over the past few decades, cheap and low-skilled labor has provided many countries — including much of East Asia — with a competitive advantage. However, with economies increasingly turning to automation, cheap labor and low skills will no longer guarantee economic growth or even jobs.
The inefficiency and inequity caused by age differences in testing is not news. On the contrary, it is a well-documented fact. The proposed solution to this problem is to age-adjust test scores. But the truth is, we are nowhere near to implementing such a solution.
Every sector is reforming to meet the changing demands of the global economy. Except one. Education remains a predominantly public service. This is fine except that it means that this is also mainly publicly-provided, publicly-financed, and regulated. No public service agency is expected to do as much as we expect of education. How are education systems around the world faring?
Intensive “bootcamp” training programs that develop coding and other computer science skills and directly connect students with jobs are becoming increasingly popular. In the U.S, there are already over 90 bootcamps—and they are taking root in Latin America too, helping to close the region’s skills and gender gaps.