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primary and secondary education

Finding a reasonable target for math and reading test scores

Marguerite Clarke's picture
Young girl studying. Photo: Khasar Sandag / World Bank


The United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) for education calls for learning for all. This includes ensuring that, by 2030, all students achieve relevant learning outcomes by the end of their primary and lower-secondary schooling. An important way to measure the attainment of this target will be to look at the percentage of children in each country achieving- at the very least- “minimum proficiency” on standardized math and reading tests.

Brazil: Extending school days may hurt students

Rita Almeida's picture
Photo: Stephan Bachenheimer/ World Bank

María is a single mother with two young children who spend about five hours a day in school. Since she has a full time job, it’s a challenge for her to care for them and not lose her only source of income. This may be a hypothetical situation but it’s replicated, every day, in many countries in Latin America that have a reduced school day. 
In Latin America, several countries – Chile, Colombia, Uruguay, and Brazil – have introduced programs to lengthen the school day. The goal: to improve student learning, reduce student dropouts, and to ultimately shrink income inequality.

There is no easy fix to the dropout problem

Rafael de Hoyos's picture
This page in: Espanol
Students at secondary school. Photo: © Charlotte Kesl / World Bank


When I joined the Mexican ministry of education in 2008, one of the first challenges I had was to identify effective policies to reduce dropout rates in upper secondary (grades 10, 11 and 12). Eight years, two randomized control trials, numerous workshops, and several diagnostics later, I still don’t have a precise answer. 

Teacher Management 2.0: An innovative, data-driven approach in Malawi

Salman Asim's picture
Nine year old Selina Josophati, a standard two learner at the Government Junior Primary School in Mchinji district of Malawi. Photo Credits: Wathando Mughandira

There is a need for a teachers’ house in my school,” said nine-year old Selina Josophati.

Selina, a second grade student at the government-run primary school in the Mchinji district of Malawi, is afraid that without a place to live, all the teachers in her school might leave town, shattering her dreams to continue studying and join secondary school. Selina wants to become a teacher when she grows up.