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Hi Jishnu, No, I think you have it right. I don't think anything I said contradicts what you have written here. You asked, "I would be interested in exploring whether technology can improve accountability when government oversight is weak." I just thought I'd throw another technology into the mix, one that has been used in India with some success -- perhaps one that is not as politically-charged, at least in the eyes of many, as fingerprinting is -- and that which people are considering using in other places, based on experiences in India. I certainly didn't mean to imply that the J-PAL study claims that the mere act of taking someone's picture caused a significant change in behavior over time -- and I don't think I did. In fact, I don't think I characterized results from the study in this regard at all -- rather, I pulled a direct quote on the study from the J-PAL site itself. The quote said that the use of cameras in the study was "a relatively cost-effective method to monitor teacher attendance". It didn't say anything about it changing behavior *by itself* (and neither did I). For what it's worth: You could, I suppose, use the sorts of photos taken in the J-PAL experiment in other ways that weren't linked directly to compensation. In some cultures, for example, posting the pictures on-line (or in the newspaper, or on a bulletin board outside of the school, or distributing them to local elders, etc.) might change behavior. Not sure if anyone has tried this sort of thing; it would make for a potentially interesting study. Whether this sort of thing is politically feasible, or socially palatable, is of course another matter entirely (same holds for the use of fingerprinting, of course), and would, I presume, depend on the local socio-political context. Cheers, Mike