Interesting summary. It is good that there is a resurgence in vocational education. Even though Americans are against tracking from a young age - if we could change the overall attitudes toward vocational education it would be a worthwhile step. There should be a point when students, possibly even late High School, could choose a vocational path. As it stands currently these students are ignored by educators and told that vocational education is for stupid students and drop outs. This seems that it would be the first step to reinvigorating the development of a skilled workforce. Attach a positive image to a vocational choice. This has been an uphill battle since Gardner's 1961 book, "Excellence". If the principles he brought to the table could be made active in the US and abroad it would benefit all. Thank you again for your article.