Thank you for your comment. I agree that accountability is important for making partnerships work. The whole point of contracting non-state providers is to enhance opportunities and achieve results. It is not that private schools are performing better than public schools. In fact, once you control for socioeconomic factors most private schools perform no better than public schools. Rather the point is to explore opportunities for collaboration that would enhance overall system performance. Therefore, the examples may non-state actors participating in the development of educational resources; non-public management of schools; scholarships for private school attendance by the poor; and so on. Cooperation can be done with contracts with the private schools. Along with resources the schools would agree to performance standards and strict accountability rules. Properly run partnerships are showing good results. Read more on these programs and the conditions for making them better at: Engaging the Private - Non State Sector in Education Toolkit: http://www.cfbt.com/epsetoolkit/home.aspx . At the same time, as you suggest, decentralized administration can help public schools become more innovative, by extending autonomy and empowering parents, teachers and school leaders. But that too needs to be done under a system of strong accountability. See: SABER - School Autonomy and Accountability Scale, http://go.worldbank.org/BW7VX42UK0 .