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Hooray for learning goals.

Now, beyond that, I'm a bit perplexed by all 3 points and the one-size-fits-all theme here. One interpretation of the recent literature on these topics is that it shows:

(a) overambitious curricula in developing-country school systems inhibit learning (Duflo, Dupas, Kremer 2011, Pritchett and Beatty 2012).
(b) tracking and remedial education can increase learning, at least in some contexts (Duflo, Dupas, Kremer 2011, Banerjee, Cole, Duflo, and Linden 2007).
(c) locally recruited contract teachers with fewer qualifications can produce equal or higher rates of learning compared to higher salary civil service teachers (Muralidharan and Sundararaman 2013; Duflo, Dupas, and Kremer 2012).

That would seem to imply poor countries probably *should* set more modest learning goals focusing on basic literacy and numeracy for all (contra point 1), possibly invest in remedial education or multi-track systems (contra point 2), and reduce the focus on standard teaching qualifications (which doesn't contradict, but seems to be at odds with the implied message of point 3).

Feel free to tell me how I'm misreading the literature here, or possibly your post!

Justin