In terms of schooling, Serbia has made great strides in ensuring universal access to pre-primary, primary, and lower-secondary education, and has considerably improved learning outcomes. Enrollment in basic education is higher than 95 percent and the quality of education in Serbia has improved considerably over time. The Harmonized Learning Outcomes have increased from 458 points in 2003 to 521 points in 2015 – an increase of 63 points, or a gain of 2 years in learning outcomes.
Robots may not be taking all our jobs, but they are changing profoundly the way we work. Take the European Union (EU), where jobs are increasingly about “non-routine cognitive” and “interpersonal” tasks which require workers to think creatively, solve problems and collaborate with others. Labor market transformation in the EU can be summed up by the number 15: the intensity of non-routine cognitive tasks in EU jobs has increased by 15 percent over the last 15 years, while the prevalence of manual tasks has declined by 15 percent. This is producing a growing divide in employment and earnings across the EU: While high-skill workers are thriving, low-skill workers are losing out. It has never been more important to invest in people and provide every worker with sound foundational skills.
Para enfrentar la crisis mundial de aprendizaje (i) es necesario mejorar la experiencia de los estudiantes jóvenes, y así ayudarlos a aprender y avanzar más en su educación. Los directores son centrales en esa experiencia: desde la limpieza de la escuela, hasta la manera en que los estudiantes y los maestros interactúan y la motivación y el esfuerzo que estos últimos muestran en las aulas. Por ello, no es sorpresivo que se considere a los directores, después de los maestros, como el insumo escolar más importante para el aprendizaje de los estudiantes (consulte este artículo y este sitio web). (i) Sin embargo, en muchos países de ingreso mediano y de ingreso bajo, solo recientemente las maneras de seleccionar, capacitar, apoyar e incentivar a los directores de escuelas han pasado a primer plano en los debates sobre las políticas educativas.
Addressing the global learning crisis requires improving the experience of young students, to help them learn more and progress further in their education. Principals are at the heart of shaping that experience – from the cleanliness of the building, to the way that students and teachers interact with each other, to the motivation and effort teachers make inside their classrooms. So it is no surprise that, after teachers, principals are generally considered to be the most important school input to student learning (see here and here). Yet principals – how they are selected, trained, supported, and incentivized – have only recently come to the forefront of education policy discussions in many middle and lower income countries.
Inclusive education has been a universally acknowledged goal for over two decades, since Salamanca Statement (1994). This goal has been further strengthened by the Convention on the Rights of persons with disabilities (2006) and the Sustainable Development Goals (2015), the former making inclusive education a fundamental human right and the latter tying it to a broader global development agenda. The central role of the teacher cannot be underestimated if we aim to provide universal and inclusive education for all.
Dado que la Declaración de Incheon recomienda a los Gobiernos asignar entre el 15 % y el 20 % del gasto público total a la educación, ¿cómo pueden los Gobiernos mejorar la eficiencia de sus sistemas educativos?
With the Incheon Declaration recommending governments to allocate between 15 – 20% of total public expenditure to education, how can governments improve the efficiency of their education systems?