Acerbically pertinent question Mike and one I have a very active professional interest in. Here’s my answer. The key objective is to decouple the belief that technology can in any meaningful way be linked to educational outcomes. You note yourself that many of the decision makers in country x hold this belief so firmly through their background and training, that they are not open to redefining the questions. So the best way to start that process is to ask, "Why would anyone seek to assume a tight connection between technology and positive educational outcomes?" The answer of course is because they doubt the existence of such a link. Once you achieve that, then I think you are free to define a much more useful and meaningful range of ways of measuring impact. Since the strongest and most frequently cited argument by funders and government for ICT investment in education relates to employment, then my first choice for country x would be the employability of its students.