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South Asia should prepare now for the next disaster

Annette Dixon's picture

Nepali man constructs bamboo house

About 9,000 lives have been lost to the devastating earthquake in Nepal on April 25 and the powerful aftershock on May 12. A conference in Kathmandu on June 25 will bring Nepal together with its international partners to build the country back better and safer.

Unfortunately, this is not just a Nepal challenge. From Afghanistan to Bangladesh, much of South Asia is located in one of the highest seismically active regions in the world. More than 600 million people live along the fault-line across the Himalayan belt that runs through Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bhutan.

Toward a resilient Nepal

Ram Sharan Mahat's picture
 
Nepali women rebuild housing structures
 Photo Credit: Laxmi Prasad Ngakhushi


It has been 50 days since the devastating earthquake struck Nepal on April 25.  With another powerful aftershock on May 12, a combined 9,000 lives were lost, making this the worst disaster in Nepal’s history in terms of human casualties.  One in three Nepali has been affected by the earthquakes.  One in ten has been rendered homeless.  Half a million households have lost their livelihoods, mostly poor, subsistence farmers.  Everyone has been affected in one way or the other – women, men, children, the elderly, the differently-abled.  A large part of the country is in ruins.
 
Nepal is grateful to her friends in the international community for the rapid humanitarian response in the immediate aftermath of the disaster.  We owe you our deep respect for your generosity and heroism.
 
Early estimates from our Post Disaster Needs Assessment (PDNA) price the damages and economic losses at US$ 7 billion, roughly one-third of our economy.  The economic growth rate this fiscal year ending mid-July is expected to be the lowest in eight years, at 3.04 percent.  Revenue collections will be off-target by at least 8 percent and result in a lower base going into the next FY.  The immediate priority is to restore the productive means of livelihood for millions of people in agriculture, services and industry.

Why women should lead Nepal’s recovery

Ravi Kumar's picture
Nepali women listening to an official
Nepali women listening to an official. Photo credit: World Bank

This post was originally published on Time 

Women have lost the most—and they have the most to lose

On April 25 and May 12, Nepal was hit by devastating earthquakes. As of June 8, there have been more than 8,700 deaths, and more than 22,000 injuries, according to government data. More than 775,000 homes have been destroyed or partially damaged. Those involved in the relief and recovery process have shown tremendous conviction to help Nepal rebuild. But Nepal’s deeply entrenched patriarchal and its unfair culture toward women will likely continue to complicate efforts to help the country recover.

As a Nepalese citizen and co-founder of a company that is using open data to help with the recovery efforts, it’s clear that one way to minimize the potential damage would be to ensure women are leading the reconstruction process.

While women leaders, such as Pushpa Basnet, are actively involved in the relief process, there aren’t enough. BibekSheel Nepali, a new political party in Nepal that deserves praise for pro-actively helping in the relief process, does not have any women in its leadership team.

Back to school in Nepal. What has changed?

Dipeshwor Shrestha's picture
Biswash, a 12 year old staying at the temporary camp in Uttar Dhoka showing the Dharahara collage he made.
Biswash, a 12 year old staying at the temporary camp in Uttar Dhoka showing the Dharahara collage he made. 
​Photo - Suresh Ghimire
On April 25, the day of the earthquake, my colleagues and I were organizing the final student exhibit to mark the end of our 12-week school session. There were 12 kids and their parents when the earthquake struck. Our first instinct was to keep the kids safe; we managed to stay calm, gathered everyone into an open space and stayed strong. After the aftershocks subsided, we got news of how devastating the earthquake actually was. We immediately called our loved ones. It was a relief that everyone we knew was safe.
 
I am a teacher at Karkhana, an education company that designs and delivers hands-on STEAM (science, technology, engineering, arts and maths)-based content to middle school students in Nepal.
The first two days after the quake, we quickly realized that people without any specialized skills such as first aid, sanitation, nursing, construction, and rescue were not of much help in the immediate relief efforts.

The only way to contribute was to do what we are already good at - teach.

In Afghanistan, new technologies for doing business in the 21th century

Ikramullah Quraishi's picture
 
The Enterprise System is handed over to Hashim Naeem Tailoring Company and its employees, Parwan, Afghanistan
The Enterprise System is handed over to Hashim Naeem Tailoring Company and its employees, Parwan, Afghanistan

Sail Food Production Company is one of the largest food manufacturing factory in Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan. Despite countless hours spent on manual bookkeeping, its owner always complained about errors when reporting profits and losses on the company’s balance sheets.

At the close of each monthly accounting period, the company was always late in submitting profit and loss statements to the Provincial Department of Finance. Similarly, there were many inefficiencies in production and raw material tracking due to the absence of a proper inventory control system.

The scarcity of information technology integration within business operations has limited the development of Sail Food Production and many other Afghan small and medium enterprises (SME) as they are trying to remain competitive in a global business environment. How could this be improved?

Deltas Drained: Dealing with population migration in Bangladesh

Sylvia Szabo's picture
 

 Dealing with population migration in Bangladesh

Delta regions constitute only 5% of the land area but are home to more than 500 million people. The proportion of deltas susceptible to flooding is projected to further increase, thus affecting negatively the livelihoods of local populations, in particular farmer communities.

Recently, the International Council for Science (ICSU) endorsed the Global Sustainable Deltas Initiative (SD2015). The objective of this initiative is to bring attention to the importance and vulnerabilities of delta regions worldwide. To this aim, the University of Minnesota-led Belmont Forum DELTAS project is working to create a global vision for deltas through scientific integration, collection and sharing of data and stakeholder engagement.

Goals (SDGs), now is the time to consider these delta specific challenges in a broader context.

Afghanistan debt - when words get lost in translation

Paul Sisk's picture
Photo Credit: Rumi Consultancy/World Bank

 

One of the many successful fiscal initiatives implemented in Afghanistan was the HIPC, the Highly Indebted Poor Country program, a joint IMF–World Bank effort to reduce the public debt of poor countries. We called this the forgiveness of debt.
At an early stage in this work I had to meet with a senior Afghan government official to explain the program. The official, the Deputy Auditor General, was a dedicated, serious man who had trained in the former Soviet Union as an engineer and did not speak English, so we relied on an interpreter.

In those days any Afghan who spoke some English could find work as an interpreter, and ours was a medical doctor. He told me he was anxious to find work in his own field but in the meantime was willing to work anywhere, even interpreting in this arcane field of auditing, although he was unfamiliar with the jargon. The conversation was not to be long; just outline that the external public debt, which was mostly Russian debt from the communist era, would be absorbed by a trust fund and hence “forgiven” if Afghanistan met the program requirements – basically good fiscal transparency and discipline.

Nepal: From relief to reconstruction

Johannes Zutt's picture
Keshav’s house (left) and his mother’s house (right), before the earthquake


In Nepal’s hamlets and villages, in the first days following the 7.8 magnitude earthquake on April 25, families sheltered under crude lean-tos, made of whatever relatively waterproof materials they had to hand.

Keshav and his family

Keshav Thapa Magar, who lives with his wife, son and two daughters on the southeastern edge of the Kathmandu valley in Kot Gaon, had a typical earthquake experience for families of his 100-household village. The village consists in Newars, Magars, Chhetris and Tamangs, who mostly lived in traditional mud-brick or mud-stone houses before the earthquake destroyed them. Keshav’s own house, his cousin’s (like his, a traditional house) and his mother’s concrete post-and-beam house were all destroyed on April 25.

Nepal one month after the earthquake

Johannes Zutt's picture
Kathmandu after the first earthquake


It has been a month since a 7.8 magnitude earthquake hit central Nepal on April 25. What happened next? 
 
Having experienced a real threat of death, many survivors manifested avoidance (“I don’t want to talk about it!”), hyper-vigilance (“What’s that noise? Is the ground moving?”), intrusive thoughts (“What if the next big one may come while I’m asleep …?”) -- classic stress reactions.
 
Many Bank staff have had many sleepless nights as the aftershocks continued, more than 250 to date above a magnitude of 4, thirty above 5, four above 6, and—just when we first thought that life was becoming normal again—a 7.3 on May 12.
 
That one came like the first one, in the middle of the day, but it felt like an unwelcome nighttime guest, full of foreboding.  People ran into the streets screaming, or silly giddy on realizing that they had survived another one—but even more terrified at what would come next.  More people died; more buildings collapsed.  People who had moved back into their houses moved out again. 

Bangladesh: The challenges of living in a delta country

Lia Sieghart's picture



Deltas are often described as cradles of civilization. They are the testing grounds for early agriculture and the birthplace of hydraulic engineering as we attempted to shape the landscape to suit our needs.

Deltas are the unique result of the interaction of rivers and tidal processes resulting in the largest sedimentary deposits in the world. Although comprising only 5% of the land area, deltas have up to 10 times higher than average population—a number, which is increasing rapidly, especially for deltas in Asia.

Low lying, deltas are widely recognized as highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, particularly sea-level rise and changes in runoff, as well as being subject to stresses imposed by human modification of catchment and delta plain land use.

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