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South Asia

Addressing gender-based violence in Nepal

Zainiddin Karaev's picture
 David Waldorf
Nepal has a high incidence of gender-based violence and women remain — by large — the main victims. Credit: David Waldorf

Last month, I visited Nepal to understand the gravity of gender-based violence (GBV) and how victims can seek help and access confidential and quality support services.   
 
Nepal has a high incidence of gender-based violence. And while everyone, regardless of their sex, can be affected, women remain — by large — the main victims.   
 
In 2017, 149 people were killed as a result of GBV in Nepal. 
 
Of these victims, 140 were female, 75 of whom were killed because of domestic violence.  
 
In 2017, out of 680 documented cases, the main perpetrator was a family member or relative in 163 cases of them.  
 
However, such cases are generally unreported due to the stigma attached to GBV. 
 
In this bleak context, it was heartening to hear about an integrated platform that addresses GBV issues and has helped improve response and support to the victims.  
 
With assistance from the World Bank’s State and Peacebuilding Fund (SPF), the government of Nepal has set up a helpline and a network of service providers for GBV victims.
 
Since 2017, these programs have supported over 677 cases. 

Afghanistan makes better nutrition a priority

Michelle Mehta's picture
Also available in: دری | پښتو
Community based, preventative approaches to health care will improve stunting and wasting outcomes for Afghan children
Community based, preventative approaches to health care will improve stunting and wasting outcomes for Afghan children.  Photo Credit: Rumi Consultancy/ World Bank

Last year, Afghanistan became the 60th country to join Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN), a global movement to end malnutrition, and thus signaled its strong commitment to invest in a better future for its citizens.

This engagement comes at a critical time as more than 40 percent of Afghan children are currently stunted—or of low height for their age.

Stunting in early life is a marker of poor child growth and development and will reduce their potential to contribute toward their country’s growth and prosperity.

On the other hand, a well-nourished child tends to complete more years of schooling, learns better, and earns higher wages in adulthood, thereby increasing the odds that he or she will escape a life of poverty.[1] 

As such, Afghanistan stands to gain enormous benefits by reducing stunting, which in turn can help boost its economic growth, productivity, and human capital development.

To help the Afghan government invest in better nutrition, the South Asia Food and Nutrition Security Initiative (SAFANSI), the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH), World Bank and UNICEF have partnered to determine what it would take to reach more children, women, and their families and provide them with essential nutrition services that would ultimately reduce stunting and anemia.

ښه تغذي د افغانستان یو له لومړیتوبونو څخه

Michelle Mehta's picture
Also available in: English | دری
Community based, preventative approaches to health care will improve stunting and wasting outcomes for Afghan children
د روغتیا پالنې په برخه کې د خلکو د اړتیاوو پر بنسټ د مخنیونکو تدابیرو نیول کولاۍ شي د ماشومانو د پڅې ودې او د هغوی د روغتیايي نیمګړتیاوو له امله ناوړه اغېزو کې ښه والۍ راولي. انځور: د رومي مشورتي شرکت/ نړیوال بانک

افغانستان شپېتم هېواد وو چې تېر کال د خوارځواکۍ د له منځه وړلو د نړیوال خوزښټ سره مل شو. د خلکو لپاره د یوې سوکاله او غوره راتلونکې د برابرولو لپاره دغه هېواد د دغه تصمیم په نیولو سره خپل پیاوړۍ هوډ کې څرګند کړ او دا پانګونه ېې خورا اړینه وبلله.
 
په دغه نړیوال خوخوزښټ کې د افغانستان ګډون په خورا حساس وخت کې ترسره شوی ده، ځکه له څلوېښت سلنې زیات افغان ماشومان اړینه وده نلري او په مزمنه خوارځواکۍ اخته دي او یا ټیټ قدونه لري.
 
په لږ عمر کې له ودې څخه پاتې کېدل د ماشومانو د ناکافي تکامل او ودې بېلګه بلل کېږي، چې د هېواد د اقتصادي ودې او پرمختګ لپاره د هغوی د مشارکت ځواک راکموي.
 
له بلې خوا، هغه ماشوم، چې ښه تغذیه شوی وي، تحصیل او زده کړو ته زیاته لېوالتیا لري، او خپل درس ښه زده کوي، چې دا په خپل وار سره د ځوانۍ په مهال د هغه لپاره د زیات عاید د ترلاسه کولو زمینه برابروي. له همدې کبله دا احتمال، چې دغه شان ماشومان د ودې د پړاونو په بشپړولو او د تغذېې لپاره د وړ شرایطو پوره کولو سره له بېوزلي څخه وژغورل شي، زیاتېدونکی ده.[1]

تغذي بهتر یکی از اولویت های افغانستان

Michelle Mehta's picture
Also available in: English | پښتو
Community based, preventative approaches to health care will improve stunting and wasting outcomes for Afghan children
اتخاذ تدابیر پیشگیرانه در زمینه مراقبت های صحی مبتنی بر نیاز های مردم میتواند نتایج ناگوار ناشی از رُشد و نموی بطی اطفال و نارسایی های صحی آنها را بهبود بخشد. عکس: شرکت مشورتی رومی/ بانک جهانی

در سال گذشته میلادی افغانستان شصتمین کشورجهان بود، که شامل حرکت جهانی محو سوء تغذی گردید. با اتخاذ این تصمیم، این کشور تعهد قوی خویش را در راستای سرمایه گذاری به منظور تأمین آیندۀ بهتر برای شهروندان اش نشان داد.

شمولیت افغانستان در این حرکت جهانی در زمان خیلی حساسی صورت گرفته، زیرا بیشتر از چهل در صد کودکان افغان از رُشد و نمو مطلوب باز مانده اند و مصاب به سوء تغذی مزمن یا قد کوتاهی میباشند.

باز ماندن از نمو در سن کم نشانه یی از انکشاف و تکامل ناکافی کودکان است که توان مشارکت آن ها را در رشد اقتصادی و پیشرفت کشور شان کاهش میدهد.

از سوی دیگر، کودکی که خوب تغذیه شده باشد، تمایل بیشتر به تحصیل و آموزش داشته، و دروس خویشرا خوبتر فرا میگیرد، که این امر بالنوبه در زمان بلوغ زمینه کسب درآمد بیشتری را برای آنها فراهم میکند. بناً احتمال این که این چنین اطفال با تکامل مراحل نمو و شرایط مساعد تغذی از فقر رهایی یابند، بیشتر میگردد.[1]

در نتیجه میتوان گفت که با کاهش مشکلات رُشد و نموی کودکان، دولت افغانستان میتواند فواید زیادی را حاصل کند که  دست یابی به این هدف به نوبۀ خود به رشد اقتصادی کشور، افزایش تولیدات و انکشاف سرمایۀ بشری کمک میکند.
جهت کمک به دولت افغانستان در سرمایه گذاری بالای تغذی، نهاد جنوب آسیا برای مصؤنیت غذایی و تغذیه ، وزارت صحت عامه، بانک جهانی و صندوق حمایت از کودکان سازمان ملل متحد  (یونسیف) در همکاری با همدیگر تلاشهای همه جانبه به خرج میدهند، تا تشخیص نمایند که چگونه میتوانند کودکان، زنان و خانواده های بیشتر را تحت پوش قرار داده، خدمات مورد نیاز را به منظور فراهم سازی تغذی های مطلوب عملی سازند، تا بالاخره میزان کم خونی و رشد ناکافی در کودکان کاهش یابد.

Are Pakistan’s urban professional women immune to sexual harassment?

Saman Amir's picture

Woman face harassment in all type of jobs, no matter where or who. One can’t say that she works in a big firm so she is safe… [but] she doesn’t know who will believe her if she reports harassment – she… fears that the others will say she is asking for it.  Thus, she doesn’t say anything.” -Young working woman in Quetta.

This statement was echoed by 93 educated women of all ages in the Pakistani cities of Quetta, Peshawar, Lahore, and Karachi.

In the era of the #MeToo Movement, focus group discussions with these women affirmed that sexual harassment continues to be a part of the experience of urban educated Pakistani women seeking jobs.
 
The good news is that there’s legislation to protect against harassment, the bad is that few know about it and fewer feel comfortable reporting harassment.

For employed women, sexual harassment disrupts careers and dampens professional potential; its fear can deter women from entering the labor force at all.

We explore this as part of a study on female labor force participation in Pakistan with the Center for Gender and Policy Studies and support from the Pakistan Gender Platform. 

The women we spoke with talked about experiencing sexual, physical, verbal, non-verbal or psychological harassment at the hands of supervisors, senior staff members and colleagues, as well as strangers in public transport and spaces.

They also highlighted cyberstalking, staring, phone numbers being leaked, lewd comments, stalking in public places and harassment on public transport as common occurrences, and that such harassment occurs regardless of a woman’s age or socio-economic status.

Announcing the winners of the 2018 #OneSouthAsia Photo Contest

World Bank South Asia's picture


Home to Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, South Asia is one of the world’s most dynamic regions.

It's also one of the least integrated.

A few numbers say it all: Intra-regional trade accounts for only 5 percent of South Asia’s total trade; Intra-regional investment is smaller than 1 percent of overall investment.

Technology can help Afghanistan better manage its natural disasters

Julian Palma's picture
Also available in: دری | پښتو
 Rumi Consultancy / World Bank
Photo Credit: Rumi Consultancy / World Bank

To associate a gun shot with foul play seems logical. But that’s not necessarily the case in Guldara, a district nearly 40 kilometers outside of Kabul City in Afghanistan.

Gun shots typically come from communities living at the top of the mountain to warn vulnerable downhill communities of potential flooding from the Guldara river. The Guldara river is both a blessing and a curse for the local communities.

Its water is the main source of livelihood since nearly 75 percent of the local economy depends on agriculture. It is also a threat to life and assets. In March 2017, when the mountain snow melted, heavy floods killed two children and washed away the only road that connects the city with Kabul.

استفاده از تکنالوژی خطرات ناشی از حوادث طبیعی در افغانستان را مهار ساخته میتواند

Julian Palma's picture
Also available in: English | پښتو
 Rumi Consultancy / World Bank
عکس: شرکت مشورتی رومی/ بانک جهانی


معمولاً فیر تفنگ کار غیرمنطقی و ناشایسته پنداشته میشود، اما در ولسوالی گلدره که تقریباً ۴۰ کیلومتر از شهر کابل فاصله دارد، چنین نیست. بعضی اوقات این فیر تفنگ توسط کسانی صورت میگیرد که در قلۀ کوه زندگی میکنند و هدف آن هشدار به اهالی پایینِ دره از احتمال سرازیر شدن سیلاب در دریای گلدره میباشد.

اهالی گلدره دریای گلدره هم یک نعمت و هم یک مصیبت می شمارند. این دریا بزرگترین منبع تأمین معیشت اهالی آن ولسوالی است زیرا تقریباً ۷۵ در صد اقتصاد آن وابسته به زراعت میباشد. به همین گونه این دریا یک منبع خطر برای زندگی و دارایی مردم نیز پنداشته میشود.

در ماه مارچ سال ۲۰۱۷ میلادی، زمانی که برف کوه ها آب شد، سیلاب شدید جان دو کودک را گرفت و یگانه راه ترانسپورتی را که این دره را به شهر کابل متصل میسازد، نیز تخریب کرد.

له ټکنالوژۍ څخه ګټه اخیستنه په افغانستان کې د طبیعي پېښو خطرونه مهارولۍ شي

Julian Palma's picture
Also available in: English | دری
 Rumi Consultancy / World Bank
انځور: د رومی مشورتي شرکت / د نړیوال بانک

د ټوپک ‌ډز معمولاً ناوړه او غیرمنطقي کار ګڼل کېږي، خو د ګلدرې په ولسوالۍ کې چې له کابل ښار څخه تقریباً ۴۰ کیلومتره لرې دی، داسې نه ده. کله کله د ټوپک ډز هغه وګړي کوي، چې د غره په لوړو څوکو کې اوسېږي او له دې سره هغو خلکو ته چې د درې په لاندې برخو کې مېشت دي، خبرداری ورکوي، چې کېدای شي د ګلدرې په سین کې سېلاب راشي.

د ګلدرې وګړي د ګلدرې سین هم یو نعمت ګڼي او هم یو مصیبت. دغه سین د دې ولسوالۍ د اوسېدونکو د معیشت او روزګار تر ټولو لویه منبع ده، ځکه چې د هغوی د اقتصاد شاو خوا ۷۵ سلنه پر کرنه ولاړ دی.

دا سین د دې خلکو سر او مال ته خطر هم بلل کیږي. د ۲۰۱۷ میلادي کال په مارچ میاشت کې، کله چې د غرونو واورې ویلې شوې، سخت سېلاب وبهېد او دوه ماشومان یې ووژل او هغه یوازینۍ لاره یې، چې دا ولسوالي له کابل سره نښلوي، ورانه کړه.

Pulling out all stops: World Bank in Nepal

Faris Hadad-Zervos's picture

Nepal

Few countries in recent history have experienced change on a scale as sweeping as Nepal – that too, in the span of a single generation. The journey is ongoing as Nepalis continue to confront and challenge the conventional wisdom about Nepali statehood and chart a path towards a more inclusive, equitable and modern nation-state.

The new federal structure also redefines the World Bank Group (WBG)’s engagement with Nepal. This week, as the WBG’s Board of Executive Directors endorsed a new five-year Country Partnership Framework (CPF), Nepal’s Finance Minister Yuba Raj Khatiwada attended a series of Nepal Day events at the WBG headquarters in Washington DC. There, he unfurled the new government’s vision and development priorities and discussed approaches to address Nepal’s financing and knowledge needs in the WBG’s upcoming programme of assistance.

Finance Minister Yuba Raj Khatiwada's Vision for Nepal's Future


The CPF is designed to balance support to Nepal’s transition to federalism with its quest for higher growth, sustained poverty reduction and inclusive development. To that end, our strategy and approach seeks to support the authorities and engage with development partners in three transformative engagement areas: (i) public institutions for economic management, service delivery and public investment; (ii) private sector-led jobs and growth; and (iii) inclusion for the poor, vulnerable, and marginalised groups, with greater resilience against climate change, natural disasters, and other exogenous shocks. These focus areas were informed by extensive consultations and surveys across the country’s seven states with over 200,000 citizens, government, civil society organisations, the private sector, media and development partners.

In many respects, Nepal is starting from a clean state. While Nepal did practise a limited version of decentralisation in the early 2000s, the scope of devolution proposed by the 2015 Constitution is unprecedented.  Meanwhile, reforms promise to rid the country of a legacy of exclusion based on geography, ethnicity and gender.

Over the last decade, Nepal experienced frequent government turnover and political fragmentation with a considerable toll on development.  The 2017 elections mark a significant turning point, in that they offer higher hopes for political stability and policy predictability that remained elusive during most of Nepal’s recent past. This is a considerable achievement.

Interview with World Bank Country Director for Nepal, Qimiao Fan


Nepal has achieved a remarkable reduction in poverty in the last three decades, but the agenda remains unfinished. While the national poverty estimates await updating starting next year, at last count, poverty fell from 46 per cent in 1996 to 15 per cent in 2011 as measured by the international extreme poverty line. However, most of the poverty reduction resulted from the massive outmigration of labour, and a record increase in private remittances. Moreover, a significant disparity remains in poverty incidence across the country.

Compared to the average 4.5 per cent of GDP growth over the last decade, Nepal needs to achieve faster growth to meet its coveted goal of attaining middle-income status by 2030. Nepal needs to grow in the order of at least 7 to 8 per cent and shift from remittance-led consumption to productive investment. The economy also remains exposed to exogenous shocks like earthquakes, floods and trade disruptions. These long-standing economic vulnerabilities will require far-reaching but carefully-calibrated reforms.

Nepal now faces the daunting task of adapting to a three-tier structure in the face of nascent and often-nonexistent institutions at the sub-national levels. Immediate challenges include the need to clarify the functions and accountabilities of the federal, state and local governments; deliver basic services and maintain infrastructure development; enable the private sector; and ensure strong and transparent governance during the early years of federalism. Meanwhile, if left unmet or unmanaged, heightened public expectations of federalism could rapidly degenerate from anticipation to disillusionment.
 
Short Take: Nepal Country Partnership Framework (FY2019-23)

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