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And a river runs through it

Atul Agarwal's picture

Integrating the Brahmaputra’s innumerable ferries into Assam’s wider transport network

Anyone who has visited Assam cannot help but be struck by the mighty Brahmaputra. The river straddles the state like a colossus, coursing through its heart, and severing it two - the northern and southern banks. During the monsoon, so vast is the river’s expanse - almost 20 km in parts - that you cannot see the other side. So fearsome are its waters that the Brahmaputra is India’s only river with a masculine name; all the others have feminine appellations. Yet, just four bridges, including India’s longest bridge that was recently inaugurated on its tributary the Lohit - and one more under construction - span the state’s entire 900 km stretch of river.
Given this formidable natural barrier, most of Assam’s towns have developed on the river’s southern flank, where the plains are wider. With little connectivity, the northern side remains cut off from the mainstream, and is largely underdeveloped.

What’s more, the small communities living on the river’s hundred or so inhabited islands remain isolated. It can be quite frustrating to see a school or a medical center on the other side and not be able to access it! Only Majuli, the world’s largest riverine island and an administrative district by itself, supports schools and some form of medical facilities for its more than 100,000 residents.

Providing road access to all: how India is turning a distant dream into reality

Ashok Kumar's picture
For many decades now man has been able to go to the moon. Yet down here on earth, many people are still unable to travel to nearby towns, because of the lack of decent roads. The world over, about a billion people live without access to an all-weather road. And many more have perhaps lost the access they once had because floods, heavy rains, cloudbursts, landslides and other extreme weather events have damaged the roads or they have not been maintained. Can we ever think of a world free of poverty without addressing this fundamental challenge?  
Let’s look at the case of India where 500,000 km of rural roads have so far been built by the country’s flagship rural roads program (PMGSY). These roads, connecting some 120,000 settlements, have already started transforming the rural areas of the country.
Photo Credit: Shaju John/World Bank

These roads form part of a core network of 1.1 million that India is seeking to build through its ongoing $35 billion PMGSY program to provide about 179,000 rural settlements with road access. The project has been designed to deliver high-quality, sustainable roads in a timely and cost-effective manner. PMGSY’s main source of funding is a special tax on diesel. Since the PMGSY began, the World Bank has been working closely with the Indian government through a series of projects and knowledge initiatives, with funding of about US$1.8 billion.

Our commitment to the people of Afghanistan stays strong

Annette Dixon's picture
Also available in: دری | پښتو
Despite government efforts with support from the international community, Afghanistan's development needs remain massive. Photo Credit: Rumi Consultancy/ World Bank

I am still shaken and saddened by the many lives lost to the attacks in Kabul two weeks ago and since then there has been more violence. As we grieve these tragedies, now is the time to stand strong with the people of Afghanistan and renew our commitment to build a peaceful and prosperous country.

To that end, we announced this week a new financing package of more than half-a-billion dollars to help Afghanistan through its struggle to end poverty, increase opportunity to help stabilize the country, and ensure all its citizens can access basic services during a time of economic uncertainty.

Afghanistan has come a long way since 2001 and achieved much progress under extremely challenging circumstances. Life expectancy has increased from 44 to 60 years, maternal mortality has decreased by more than three quarters and the country now boasts 18 million mobile phone subscribers, up from almost none in 2001.

Yet, the development needs in Afghanistan remain massive. Nearly 40 percent of Afghans live in poverty and almost 70 percent of the population are illiterate. The country needs to create new jobs for about 400,000 people entering the labor market each year. The situation is made more challenging by the return of around 5.8 million refugees and 1.2 million internally displaced people.

Our new support is in line with our belief that Afghanistan’s economic and social progress can also help it address security challenges.  Our financing package meets the pressing needs of returning refugees, expands private-sector opportunities for the poor, boosts the development of five cities, expands electrification, improves food security, and builds rural roads.

تعهد ما برای مردم افغانستان همچنان پایدار است

Annette Dixon's picture
Also available in: English | پښتو
علی الرغم تلاشهای دولت در مساعی مشترک با جامعه جهانی، نیازمندی های انکشافی افغانستان هنوز هم بسیار زیاد است.
عکس: شرکت رومی/ بانک جهانی

دو هفته بعد از حملات در شهر کابل که به اثر آن تعداد کثیری از افغانها جان های خود را باختند، هنوز هم موجب تأسف و تألم من میگردد.  بعد از آن، خشونت های دیگر نیز اتفاق افتاد. در حالیکه در سوگ این تراژیدی ها قرار داریم، فعلاً زمان آن رسیده است، تا در کنار مردم افغانستان ایستاده و تعهد خود مبنی بر ایجاد صلح و رفاه در کشور را یکبار دیگر تجدید نماییم.

درین راستا، دیروز بستهٔ کمک مالی تازه بیش از نیم میلیارد دالر را در جهت همکاری با افغانستان، اعلان نمودیم. تا از آن برای مبارزه با فقر، افزایش فرصت ها برای آوردن ثبات در کشور، و یقینی ساختن اینکه شهروندان به خدمات اساسی در زمان بحران اقتصادی دسترسی داشته باشند. از سال ۲۰۰۱ بدینسو، باوجود دشواریهای بسیار، افغانستان توانست مسیر طولانی را بپیماید و به دستآورد های فراوانی نایل اید. میزان اوسط عمر از ۴۴ به ۶۰ سال افزایش یافت، میزان و مرگ و میر مادران بیشتر از سه-چهارم کاهش یافت، و در مقایسه با سال ۲۰۰۱ که هیچ استفاده کننده تیلفون موبایل وجود نداشت، اکنون ۱۸ میلیون مشترک تیلفون موبایلدر سراسر کشور از این خدمات تیلفونی مستفید میشوند. 

علی رغم آن، نیازهای انکشافی در کشور هنوز هم طور وسیع باقی مانده است. نزدیک به ۴۰ درصد نفوس  افغانستان زیر خط فقر بسر میبرند و تقریباً ۷۰ درصد نفوس کشور بیسواد اند. افغانستان نیاز دارد، تا برای ۴۰۰،۰۰۰ تن افغان که سالانه وارد بازار کار میشوند، زمینه اشتغال را فراهم سازد. همچنان دشواریها زمانی بیشتر گردید که نزدیک به ۵،۸ میلیون مهاجر به کشور عودت نمودند و ۱،۲ میلیون بیجاشده گان داخلی  به خانه های خود برگشتند.  

حمایت جدید ما برمبنای این باور است که پیشرفت افتصادی و اجتماعی میتواند چالش های امنیتی را مرفوع سازد. بستهٔ کمک مالی جدید ما در عرصه های مختلف بمصرف خواهد رسید که شامل: رفع نیازهای مبرم عودت کننده گان، زمینه سازی بهره گیری افراد ناتوان از فرصت های بوجود آمده توسط سکتور خصوصی، تقویت امورانکشافی پنج شهر بزرگ، بهبود شبکه های برق رسانی، بهبود مصؤنیت غذایی و اعمار جاده های روستایی میباشد.

د افغانستان د خلکو له پاره زموږ ژمنه تلپاته ده

Annette Dixon's picture
Also available in: English | دری
له نړيوالې ټولنې سره د دولت پر ګډو هڅو سربېره  لا هم د افغانستان پراختيايي اړتياوې خورا زياتې دي. تصوير: رومي شرکت/نړيوال بانک

که څه هم په کابل ښار کې له هغه خونړي برید څخه، چې په ترڅ کې یې یو زیات شمېر افغانان مړه او ټپیان شول دوه اونۍ تیریږي، خو بیا هم دا ناوړه پېښه زما د خپګان او غم سبب ګرځي. له بده مرغه، چې په راوروستو اونیو کې هم د زیاترو زړه بوږنوونکو او ټکان ورکوونکو پیښو شاهدان وو. په داسې حال کې، چې لا تر اوسه پورې هم د همدې تراژیدۍ په غم کې یو، فکر کوم اوس هغه وخت رارسیدلی دی، تر څو د افغانانو تر څنګ ودریږو او یو ځل بیا په دې هېواد کې د سولې او سوکالي د راوستو لپاره خپله ژمنه نوي کړو.

د روان زیږدیز کال د جون په ۱۳مه نېټه، نړیوال بانک له افغانستان سره د څه باندې نیم میلیارد امریکايي ډالرو مالي مرستې اعلان وکړ، تر څو له هغو څخه له بېوزلی سره د مبارزې په دګر کې د دولت د هڅو، په دې هېواد کې د ټیکاو راوستلو لپاره د کاري فرصتونو د زیاتوالي، د ټولو افغانانو لپاره په تیره بیا د اقتصادي کړکېچ په وضعیت کې د بنسټیزو خدمتونو د وړاندې کولو په برخه کې په اغیزمنه توګه سره وکارول شي.

له ۲۰۰۱ میلادی کال را پدیخوا، د زیاتو ستونزو سره سره، افغانستان وکولای شول اوږد مزل ووهي او د پام وړ لاسته راوړنې ولري. د عمر منځنۍ کچه له ۴۴ کلنۍ څخه ۶۰ کلنۍ ته لوړه شوه، د ولادت په مهال د مور او مېندو د مړینې کچه څه باندې دری پر څلورمه برخه راښکته شوه او له ۲۰۰۱ میلادی کال سره په پرتله، چې هغه وخت کې هېڅ ګرځنده تلیفون نه و، اوس مهال په ټول هېواد کې د ګرځنده تلیفوني خدماتو ۱۸ میلیونه ګډون وال له دې خدماتو څخه ګټه اخلي.
خو بیا هم، په دغه هېواد کې پراختیايي اړتیاوې په پراخه کچه سره په خپل ځای پاتې دي. نږدې ۴۰ سلنه افغانان د بېوزلی د کرښې لاندې ژوند لري او شاوخوا ۷۰ سلنه د هېواد وګړي نالوستي دي. افغانستان اړتیا لري، ترڅو هغو ۴۰۰۰۰۰ افغانانو ته چې په کلنۍ توګه د کار بازار ته راځي، د کارموندنې زمینه برابره کړي. له دې سربیره، د دې هېواد ستونزې هغه مهال ډېرې شوي، چې نږدې ۵،۸ میلیونه کډوال بیرته هېواد ته راستانه شول او ۱،۲ میلیونه کورنۍ بېځایه شوي یو ځل بیا خپلو سیمو ته ستانه شول.

دا نوې مالي مرسته د دې باور پر بنسټ شوې ده، چې اقتصادي او ټولنیز پرمختګ کولای شي امنیتي ننګوونې له منځه یوسي. دغه مرستندویه کڅوړه د بېلابېلو برخو د ملاتړ په خاطر ده، چې هغه برخې عبارت دې له: د بیرته راستنیدونکو او کورنۍ بېځایه شویو وګړو د بنسټیزو اړتیاوو پوره کول، د خصوصي سکټور له خوا د رامنځته شویو فرصتونو له لارې د وړ او ناوسه کسانو لپاره د ګټې اخیستنې د زمینې برابرول، د پنځو سترو ښارونو د پراختیا پیاوړتیا، د برېښنا رسونې د شبکو پراختیا او ښه والی، د خوراکي توکو دخوندیتوب ښه والی او د کلیوالي سړکونو جوړول.

Sri Lanka needs critical minds for critical times!

Idah Z. Pswarayi-Riddihough's picture

Every year, May 3rd is marked around the globe as World Press Freedom Day. This year UNESCO has declared the theme “Critical Minds for Critical Times”. Recently, Sri Lanka joined the ranks of nations that have taken progressive steps in making information available to the public by unveiling its own Right to Information (RTI) law. This is an important first step for the country. Experience from different parts of the world suggests that opening up access to information is an ongoing process that requires patience and perseverance to bring the full benefits of disclosure to a large number of stakeholders including, citizens, private sector and government.

women working on computers 

The World Bank unveiled its own policy on the disclosure of information in 2002. The Bank felt compelled to do so as knowledge sharing is an integral part of its development mission.  Moreover, the Bank needed to share information in order to get a better pulse from its stakeholders on how its services were performing; how it could improve but also to serve an increasing demand for its information and data.  In 2010 this policy was revised through a series of public consultations. Even so, the document is still evolving with constant feedback from our clients and citizens from countries we serve.
Opening up the institution has also meant exposing our staff and projects to public scrutiny. When I joined the World Bank in 1995, it was a very different institution; most information was restricted. Our journey from a closed institution to an open one has not been easy. We have learnt that merely implementing a policy is not enough to achieve the real reason for opening up; allow people to review, analyze and make informed judgements based on concrete information and data.  But more importantly we now know better that how staff perceive the increased access and its impact is the biggest challenge and yet also an opportunity.

Animal vaccinations help Afghan farmers and their livestock stay healthy

Dr. Sarferaz Waziry's picture
Also available in Dari | Pashto
On a visit to a vaccination program in Kalakan district in Kabul Province, I met many farmers who were happy and grateful that their animals were being vaccinated. Many Afghans today, including those in the villages, now understand that there are diseases that can pass from animals to humans and the best way to prevent it is to vaccinate the animals.

One of the farmers told me, “In the past we used not to care about the animals because we thought it did not matter. If an animal fell sick, we would slaughter it and buy a new one. But now we understand the value of animal health and vaccinations. We vaccinate our animals and by taking care of them, we ensure our good health too.”
Afghanistan’s economy is highly dependent on animal husbandry and this makes the population susceptible to a host of animal-borne infections. Additionally, the country is a large importer for livestock products, and it is significantly important to improve the Afghan livestock sector through better animal health to gradually substitute imports. One such infection is brucellosis, which is highly contagious and spreads to humans from infected domesticated animals, such as goats, cattle, sheep, or dogs. It is caused by consumption of contaminated food, especially raw meat and unpasteurized milk. The bacteria can also spread through air or on contact with an open wound and even on contact with skin.
Since 2013, through vaccination campaigns for domestic animals and awareness about how animal diseases convey to human, there is improvement in livestock products and public health.

Next Wave of Economic Reforms in India

Varun Sridharan's picture
Dr. Denis Medvedev, the World Bank Group’s Senior Country Economist, spoke at the Indian Institute of Management Calcutta on the Next Wave of Economic Reforms in India on 20th November, this year.  The talk focused on the challenges facing the Indian economy in achieving inclusive growth with a special focus on reducing poverty in the lower income states.
IIM Calcutta Discussion
Photo Credit: Roli Mahajan

Life and Death in South Asia

Eliana Cardoso's picture

In the film, Venus, an old and frail Peter O’Toole discovers the Greek goddess in the guise of his best friend’s niece. The ironic and good humored story explores the theme of the games played in a mutual seduction between the older man with experience, money and a nostalgic yearning for carnal desire and the young woman who soon finds out the power she wields and negotiates three kisses in return for a pair of earrings. In the final scene, wearing only one of his boots on a cold beach, O’Toole feels the caress of the sea’s salty foam with the sole of his foot and smiles. His face expresses the happiness of someone who knows the joys of being alive.

It is impossible to weigh up Peter O’Toole’s smile, measuring the degree of his happiness or comparing it to what you would feel if walking barefoot in the sand. But, the idea that his feelings can be measured as a metric has become fashionable, ever since the King of Bhutan decided that GDP fails to portray the well-being of his subjects and summoned a team to create the Gross National Happiness index.

Financing, Oversight Critical For Afghanistan's Army, Police

William Byrd's picture

Afghanistan needs more well-trained Afghan soldiers and better Afghan police, but the question is who will pay for them? The country cannot afford to pay the additional costs out of its own limited budget resources—any further money coming from this source will be at the expense of much less funding for urgent development priorities like educating children, improving basic health, building public infrastructure, etc. Will the international community commit to provide predictable funding for a number of years for Afghanistan’s security sector? This is a critical backbone of the state, whose development is essential to over time progressively replace international military forces which are far more costly. Creating security forces without the ability to pay for them will lead to obvious problems. And while expanding the Afghan security forces, it is critical to ensure that sound oversight and accountability mechanisms are in place.