Holidays for me have always been about family and food. A time to relax, catch-up with loved ones and eat good food. When it’s our turn to cook, my husband and I take time to plan the menu. A central part of our meals are vegetables and fresh fruits but we have also learnt over the years that a good meal needs fresh ingredients, all procured as close to the preparation of the meal as possible.
Sri Lanka has not disappointed in its array of fruits and vegetables. I am still discovering the names of many; some of which I will never be able to pronounce for sure. Despite that, I love eating them!
Amongst my favourites are papaya, mangoes and kankun, the last for which I share a passion with my two pet turtles. But getting these vegetables and fruits from the same supplier on a constant basis is a challenge. Even common produce like onions, tomatoes, and cucumbers can be discoloured or squishy – not at all appetizing or conducive for a salad or other such type of fresh dish.
The price, of course, is the same whatever the quality. Fresh produce can be expensive, and regularly buying a variety of fruits and vegetables does strain the budgets of many families in Sri Lanka. Needless to say, this shouldn’t be the case in a country with such rich soils and plentiful sunshine.
The question of access to fresh and healthy food goes beyond our holiday tables. According to the World Health Organisation, 1 in 5 premature deaths in Sri Lanka are due to a non-communicable disease (NCD) such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease or cancer. Tobacco use, unhealthy diets, harmful use of alcohol and physical inactivity have all been identified as risk factors.
Agriculture and Rural Development
Bhutan is a challenging environment in which to develop commercial agriculture. The country has limited areas for agriculture, and its geography and road conditions make logistics and market access costly.
Therefore, commercial agriculture is critical to increase productivity, which will help create jobs and access to more and better food. This can be achieved not only through focusing on high-value products and investing in traditional infrastructure such as irrigation, but also through using information and communication technology (ICT). Based in eastern Bhutan, Mountain Hazelnuts has developed innovative uses of ICT for its commercial agriculture operations.
In Bangladesh, chronic and acute malnutrition are higher than the World Health Organization’s (WHO) thresholds for public health emergencies—it is one of 14 countries where eighty percent of the world’s stunted children live.
Food insecurity remains a critical concern, especially in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT).
Located in the southeastern part of Bangladesh, CHT is home to 1.7 million people, of whom, about a third are indigenous communities living in the hills. The economy is heavily dependent on agriculture, but farming is difficult because of the steep and rugged terrain.
With support from the South Asia Food and Nutrition Security Initiative (SAFANSI), the Manusher Jonno Foundation (MJF) conducted a food and nutrition analysis which finds that more than 60% of the population in CHT migrates during April – July when food becomes harder to procure.
Based on these findings, MJF helped raise awareness through nutrition educational materials and training. The foundation staff also formed courtyard theatres with local youth to deliver nutrition messages, expanded food banks with nutritious and dry food items, and popularized the concept of a “one dish nutritious meal” through focal persons or “nutrition agents” among these communities.
Earth’s landscape has been subjected to both natural and anthropogenic fires for millions of years.
Natural, lightning-caused fires are known to have occurred in geological time continuously at least since the late Silurian epoch, 400 million years ago, and have shaped the evolution of plant communities.
Hominids have used controlled fire as a tool to transform the landscape since about 700,000 years ago. These hominids were Homo erectus, ancestors of modern humans. Paleofire scientists, biogeographers and anthropologists all agree that hominid use of fire for various purposes has extensively transformed the vegetation of Earth over this period.
The nature of Earth’s modern-day biomes would be substantially different if there had been no fires at all. William Bond and colleagues (2005) used a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model to simulate the area under closed forest with and without fire. They estimated that in the absence of fire, the area of closed forest would double from the present 27% to 56% of present vegetated area, with corresponding increase in biomass and carbon stocks. This would be at the expense of C4 grasslands and certain types of shrub-land in cooler climates.
According to a recent study published in Science Advances, climate change is projected to hit South Asia especially hard.
Impacts will be particularly intense in the food and agriculture sector. A region inhabited by about one-fifth of the world’s people, South Asia and its densely populated agricultural areas face unique and severe natural hazards. Its food system is particularly vulnerable. Climate-smart agriculture (CSA)-- which is an integrated approach to managing landscapes that is focused on increasing agricultural productivity, improving resilience to climate change, and reducing agricultural greenhouse gas emissions—is part of the solution.
The World Bank is working to mainstream climate smart agriculture in South Asia with a series of Climate-Smart Agriculture or “CSA” Country Profiles for Bhutan, Nepal and Pakistan, that were launched recently in collaboration with Governments and relevant stakeholders. The findings in the profiles are specific to national contexts, but there is a common thread. We learned that for South Asia, climate change adaptation and mitigation pose major challenges and opportunities for agriculture sector investment and growth.
The farmers, Government representatives and other stakeholders I met during the CSA Country Profile launches expressed huge interest in learning how they can put CSA into practice. Farmers especially were interested in making CSA part of their daily farming routines. As interest grows, so does momentum to take the CSA agenda forward, from research institutions and high level gatherings into farmer’s fields. As one farmer I met in Pakistan said, “Climate-smart agriculture is Common-sense agriculture.”
Climate change is already impacting Pakistan, which often experiences periods of severe droughts, followed by devastating floods. In the aftermath of the 2010 floods, one fifth of the country’s land area was submerged, damaging the economy, infrastructure and livelihoods, and leaving 90 million people without proper access to food. Moving forward, changes in monsoons and increased temperatures will further challenge the agricultural sector, particularly northern Pakistan where vulnerability to climate change is already high.
At the same time, CSA offers attractive opportunities for strengthening Pakistan’s agricultural sector. Innovative, technological practices like laser land leveling and solar powered irrigation systems and management changes like crop diversification, proper cropping patterns and optimized planting dates could put Pakistan’s food system onto a more climate-smart path. Investments in research to develop high-yielding, heat-resistant, drought-tolerant, and pest-resistant crop varieties as well as livestock breeds could also make a difference.
زه خپله هره کاري ورځ له همکارانو او نورو کاري ملګرو سره د ګډو هڅو په موخه د همغږۍ رامنځته کولو لپاره پیلوم. له هغه ځایه، چې د بڼوالي او مالداري ملي برنامه د یوه غړي په توګه کار کوم، ډیر زیات راضي یم، ځکه د افغانستان د اقتصادي بنسټ د ودې او پیاوړتیا په برخه کې هلې ځلې کوم.
کله چې ما په ۲۰۰۹ زیږدیز کال کې د بڼوالي او مالدارۍ له ملي برنامې سره د عامه اړیکو د مسوول په توګه دنده پیل کړه، هغه مهال د شمال په ولایتونو کې د بزګرانو وضعیت دا وه، چې ډیری شمیر بزګران د بڼوالي، مالداري او د اوبو لګولو سیستم په برخو کي د معاصرو کړنلارو او له پرمختللي ټکنالوژۍ څخه د کارونې په اړه اړین معلومات نه درلودل. د کرنیزو تولیداتو او محصولاتو کچه د بزګرانو او بڼوالو له غوښتنې ډیر لږ وو او د محصولاتو کیفیت د هغوی لپاره یوه ستره ستونزه ګڼل کیده. د یوه کس په توګه، چې د کرنې په برخه کې مې زده کړې کړي او د افغانستان په شمال کې ژوند کوم، کله چې تیر وختونه را یادوم، چې بزګران په هیڅ ډول نه هڅول کیدل او نه تشویق کیدل، څو د بڼوالي په معاصرو تخنیکونو سمبال شي. دا په داسې حال کې ده، چې بزګرانو د خپل ژوندون لپاره نه ستړي کیدونکي هڅې کولې، خو عواید یې ډیر لږ وو.
د بزګرانو لپاره د پروژې پلي کولو د پیل پړاو ستونزمن وو، څو هغوی د بڼوالي او مالدارۍ ملي برنامې باندې باور وکړي، خو د وخت په تیریدو سره په تدریجي ډول دا ثابته شوه، چې هغه عصري تګلارې، چې بزګران او بڼوالان له هغه سره اشنا شول، ډیر زیات اقتصادي اغیزمنتیا او مولدیت لري. دا برنامه د بڼوالي او مالداري سنتي طریقو له منځه وړلو او پر ځای یې د معاصرو او ننۍ منل شویو معیارونو پر بنسټ د کړنلارو ځای پر ځای کولو باندې تمرکز کوي. د بیلابیلو میوو د نیالګیو کینولو سره د نویو بڼونو د جوړولو طرحه په داسې ډول پلي شوه، چې د هغه لپاره بازارموندنه ډیره ساده وه او په عین حال کې د هر ولایت له جغرافیايي موقعیت، اوبو او هوا له شرایطو سره ورته والی ولري.
هر روز کاری خود را در ایجاد هماهنگی به منظور تلاش های مشترک با همکاران و سایر شرکای کاری اغاز مینمایم. ازاینکه به صفت یک عضو برنامه ملی باغداری و مالداری ایفای وظیفه مینمایم، بسیار راضی هستم، زیرا ما در راستای رُشد و توانمند سازی بنیاد اقتصادی افغانستان تلاش مینمایم.
زمانیکه من با برنامه ملی باغداری و مالداری به حیث مسؤول ارتباطات عامه در سال ۲۰۰۹ به کار آغاز کردم، درک من از وضعیت دهاقین در ولایت شمال در آنزمان این بود که اکثریت آنان فاقد معلومات کافی در مورد کار شیوه های مدرن و استفاده از تکنالوژی پیشرفته در عرصه های باغداری، مالداری و سیستم های آبیاری بودند. اندازه تولیدات و حاصلات زراعتی کمتر از توقع دهاقین و باغداران بود و کیفیت محصولات یک چالش برای آنان محسوب میشد. به عنوان یک فرد که در بخش زراعت تحصیل نموده ام و در شمال افغانستان زندگی میکنم، زمانی را در گذشته به خاطر می آورم که دهاقین به هیچ وجه ترغیب و تشویق نگردیده ، تا به شیوه های مدرن باغداری روی بیاورند و باوجود آنکه برای امرار معیشت شان تلاش های خستگی ناپذیر مینمودند، اما درآمد شان خیلی ناچیز میبود.
در آغاز مرحله تطبیق پروژه برای دهاقین دشوار بود، تا بالای برنامه ملی باغداری و مالداری اعتماد نمایند، مگر با گذشت زمان به گونه تدریجی به اثبات رسید که شیوه های مُدرن که دهاقین و باغداران با آن آشنا گردیدند، از مؤثریت و مؤلدیت بُلند اقتصادی برخوردار میباشد. محور فعالیت های این برنامه متمرکز به تعدیل و جاگزین ساختن شیوه های عنعنوی باغداری و مالداری به شیوه های مُدرن و مطابق به معیار های پذیرفته شده امروزی میباشد. طرح ایجاد باغ های جدید با غرس نهال های میوه جات متنوع به گونه عملی گردیده است که بازاریابی برای آن سهل بوده و در عین زمان سازگار با شرایط آب و هوا و موقیعت جغرافیایی هر ولایت باشد.
Every working day, I work closely with my colleagues and coordinate with other stakeholders. I am happy with my job as a member of the National Horticulture and Livestock Project (NHLP) because we work to strengthen rural development, the foundation of Afghanistan’s economy.
When I joined NHLP as the information and communication officer in 2009, I realized that farmers in northern Afghanistan were all but unaware of improved practices and technologies in horticulture, livestock, and irrigation systems. Their production and productivity were low, and maintaining consistent product quality was a challenge. As a person who studied agriculture and has lived in northern Afghanistan, I remember that farmers were never convinced by the idea of adopting modern horticultural techniques and, despite their hard work, they earned little.
At the beginning of the project, it was hard for the farmers to trust NHLP, the new techniques that were introduced were proven to be more efficient and economically viable. The project is transforming the traditional system of horticulture and livestock to a more productive and modern one. The new orchards are designed and laid out well, and planted with fruit saplings that are marketable and adapted to the weather and geography of the province.
On November 1-3, India’s Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) and the World Bank organized a workshop in Delhi to discuss forest fire prevention and management. The workshop brought together fire experts and practitioners from eight countries along with Indian government officials from the ministry and the state forest departments, as well as representatives from academia and civil society. One of the participating countries, Mexico, has recently transformed its national policy on forest fires. Alfredo Nolasco Morales, Wildland Fire Protection Manager at Mexico’s National Forestry Commission (CONAFOR) shared his insights on what this transformation has meant for Mexico, how it was achieved, and how it may serve as an inspiration for India as the Indian government prepares a new national action plan for forest fires.
Mexico’s forest fire program has operated for more than 70 years. On average, 7,500 fires occur each year, affecting 300,000 hectares of pasture, scrubland, forest, and regrowth. Recently, however, the country has experienced some especially bad years, including in 2017, when fires burned 715,714 hectares and killed 12 people. Extreme climatic conditions and the accumulation of fuels such as dry leaves, twigs, grasses, dead trees, and fallen timber have contributed to especially severe fire seasons.
Until 2012, Mexico’s national forest fire program focused on the complete suppression of fires by contracting helicopters to douse the flames. State forest fire programs were weak and there was little institutional coordination.
This blog is certainly not about exploding mangoes but about the exploding Pakistani populace. The recent reactions of surprise on results of the census seems bewildering. Pakistan’s population is now over 207 million with a growth rate of 2.4 percent per year since the last census in 1998. The results were predictable and expected, as Pakistan has not implemented any large-scale population related interventions for over a decade. We should not be expecting results because inaction does not usually deliver them.
Pakistan’s efforts to reduce fertility and population growth were transformed during the 1990s. The period between 1990-2006 saw effective policy making under the Social Action Program with multiple interventions e.g. expansion of public sector provision, large scale private sector participation including social marketing innovations, improving access to women through community based providers. All the right things that delivered huge results. Fertility declined from around seven to four children per woman, and contraceptives use increased from 10% to over 30% - a 300% increase. Appropriate actions delivered results and some still can be photocopied and expanded on scale for making progress.