هفتۀ گذشته، یک تانکر در جمعی از هزاران وسایل نقلیه در ترافیک سنگین شهر کابل، با گذشتن از بسیاری ساختمان های دولتی و سفارتخانه ها، به چهارراهی زنبق رسید. با ایستادن در یکی از نقاط مزدحم شهر، ١٥٠٠ کیلوگرام مواد منفجرۀ جابجا شده در آن تانکر منفجر گردید. ساعت ٨:٢٢ صبح بود؛ زمانیکه بسیاری از مردم به طرف وظایف شان و بسیاری از اطفال به طرف مکتب روان بودند. این انفجار، جان ١٥٠ شهروند کابل را گرفت. این یکی از هزاران واقعات است که زندگی افغانها از آن متاثر شده است.
حوادث امنیتی، در طول سالیان اخیر، به طور دومدار در حال افزایش بوده و دامنه ان تقریباً تمام افغانستان را در بر میگیرد. شمار واقعات امنیتی و تلفات غیرنظامیان در ٢٠١٦ ريکارد شکنی نموده است. نظر به آمار شاخص جهانی صلح در سال ٢٠١٦، افغانستان چهارمین کشور نا امن بعد از سوریه، سودان جنوبی و عراق، در جهان محسوب میشود. تشدید و گسترش جغرافیای نا امنی ها، شمار بیجاشدگان داخلی را بالا برده است. نظر به اطلاعات اخیر سازمان ملل متحد، تنها درسال ٢٠١٦ بیش از ٦٧٠٠٠٠ تن در داخل افغانستان از خانه های شان بیجا شده اند.
گزارش اخیر بانک جهانی تحت نام "وضعیت فقر در افغانستان: پیشرفتها در معرض خطر" نشان میدهد که بدون شک خشونت و نا امنی خطرات زیاد را به صلح و رفاه مردم افغانستان وارد میکند. نظر به معلومات سروی وضعیت اجتماعی افغانها، تخمیناً، ١٧ فیصد خانواده های افغان، در سالهای ٢٠١٣ – ٢٠١٤، پانزده فیصد بالاتر از سالهای ٢٠١١ – ٢٠١٢ در معرض حوادث امنیتی قرار گرفته اند. این با واقعۀ اصلی که توسط بخش امنیتی سازمان ملل متحد گزارش داده شده بود، مشابهت زیاد دارد.
Last week, a tanker truck, one of many roaming the streets of Kabul, navigated through bumper-to-bumper traffic, going past government buildings and embassies, to Zanbaq Square. When stopped at a checkpoint, more than 1,500 kg of explosives that had been hidden in the tank were detonated. It was 8:22 am and many Afghans were on their way to work and children were going to school. The explosion killed 150 commuters and bystanders, and injured hundreds more. This is just one of many incidents that affects Afghans’ lives and livelihoods.
Conflict has constantly increased over the past years, spreading to most of Afghanistan, with the number of security incidents and civilian casualties breaking records in 2016. According to the Global Peace Index, Afghanistan was the fourth least peaceful country on earth in 2016, after Syria, South Sudan, and Iraq. The intensification and the geographical reach of conflict has increased the number of people internally displaced. According to the latest United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) data, over 670,000 people were internally displaced in 2016 alone.
Against this backdrop, our recent World Bank report, the “Afghanistan Poverty Status Update: Progress at Risk”, shows that not surprisingly violence and insecurity pose increasing risks to the welfare of Afghan households. Approximately 17 percent of households reported exposure to security-related shocks in 2013–14, up from 15 percent in 2011–12 according to data from the Afghanistan Living Conditions Survey (ALCS). This is largely in line with the actual incidence of conflict incidents as reported by the United Nations Department of Safety and Security (UNDSS).
“I was a completely broken person before, a person who was not able to confront the hardship of life,” says Pashtuna, a 32-year-old poultry farmer who lives in the Herat province with her husband and five children.
A beneficiary of the National Horticulture and Livestock Project she decided to attend the Farmers Field School. Upon completion of her training, she received 100 laying hens and access to equipment, feed, and animal vaccines. Pashtuna was able to maintain 80 laying hens and generated a AFN 560 income, half of which she kept to buy poultry food. “Thanks to the poultry farm and the grace of God, I can afford my life and I have a bright vision for my family future,” she says.
Revitalizing agriculture and creating agriculture jobs is a priority for the Government of Afghanistan and the World Bank Group as the sector can play an important role in reducing poverty and sustaining inclusive growth.
Unfortunately, decades of conflict destroyed much of Afghanistan’s agricultural infrastructure. The last fifteen years, however, have witnessed positive and inspiring changes in the lives of Afghan farmers, such as Pashtuna.
While focusing on rebuilding infrastructure, reorganizing farming communities and identifying vulnerabilities and opportunities, the Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock (MAIL) has brought new ideas and innovations to the agriculture sector in Afghanistan.
“Over the past five years, important changes in the practice and direction of agriculture have demanded greater expectation on performance and responsiveness of our Ministry, as well as other institutions of the government,” explains Assadullah Zamir, Afghanistan’s Minister of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock. “And the demand by women and men farmers, who have discovered the potential of improved methods of growing fruits and vegetables and producing livestock, has been recasting the relationships between MAIL and our clients, the farmers.”
بانک جهانی فعالتیهای خویش را در افغانستان در سال ۱۹۷۹ میلادی پس از تهاجم شوروی سابق به تعلیق در اورد. فعالیتهای این اداره در ماه می سال ۲۰۰۲ میلادی بمنظور حمایت از نیازمندی های ضروری افغانها و کمک به دولت این کشور در راستای ایجاد نهاد های قوی و پاسخگو غرض فراهم اوری خدمات به شهرواندان این کشور مجددا اغاز گردید.
ماه می مصادف به بزرگداشت از پانزدهمین سالگرد از سرگیری فعالیت های دفتربانک جهانی در کابل در سال ۲۰۰۲ میباشد. با ۱۵ دست آورد و فعالیت کلیدی بانک جهانی در ۱۵ سال گذشته آشنا شوید.
Shortly after the Soviet invasion in 1979, the World Bank suspended its operations in Afghanistan. Work resumed in May 2002 to help meet the immediate needs of the poorest people and assist the government in building strong and accountable institutions to deliver services to its citizens.
As we mark the reopening of the World Bank office in Kabul 15 years ago, here are 15 highlights of our engagement in the country:
افغانستان له یو لړ ننګونو لکه بېوزلۍ، نه پرمختګ او نا امنۍ سره لاس او ګرېوان دی. دا د حیرانتیا خبره نه ده، چې تاوتریخوالي او جګړې د هېواد پر اقتصاد او د خلکو پر سوکالۍ ژوره اغېزه کړې ده خو افغانستان د پرمختيا هيله لري لکه تر ۲۰۳۰ پورې په لومړنيو ښوونځيو کې د جنسیت برابري.
د دې لپاره چې ډاډه شو افغانستان خپلو موخو ته رسېږي، مهمه دا ده د هېواد پر ټولنيز او اقتصادي پرمختګ پوه شو.
د افغانستان د اسلامي جمهوریت د اقتصاد وزارت په همکارۍ او د مرکزي احصايې ادارې د اطلاعاتو پر اساس، نړیوال بانک په دې وروستيو کې د ولايتي لنډیزونو درېیمه ګڼه په پښتو او دري دواړو ژبو خپره کړې، چې په ټولنیزو او اقتصادي شاخصونو کې هر اړخیز پرمختګ (د زده کړو په ګډون هم په ملي او هم د ولايتونو په کچه) څرګندوي.
Afghanistan grapples with a range of challenges from growing insecurity to stagnating growth and rising levels of poverty. It is no surprise that the impact of the violent conflict on the country’s economic prospects and the welfare of its people is profound. Yet, Afghanistan carries ambitious development goals including achieving gender parity in primary schooling by 2030 among others. To ensure Afghanistan meets its goals, it is important to know how the country has progressed on socio-economic outcomes.
In collaboration with the Ministry of Economy of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and based on data provided by the Central Statistics Organization, the World Bank recently published the third edition of the Provincial Briefs (also available in Dari and Pashto), which provides a comprehensive profile of the most recent progress on a set of socio-economic indicators including education both at the national and at the provincial levels.
What do they reveal? We can see Afghanistan has achieved impressive improvements in human development outcomes—in areas such as education, health, and access to basic services. But this overall progress has not benefitted everyone equally and gaps in access between Afghans living in different provinces persist. In fact, where Afghan families live matters greatly for their socio-economic outcomes. And when it comes to schooling, this is no different. Location determines whether children will go to school or not.
Goma is a girl, born in rural Kalikot. Her parents are illiterate, belong to the Dalit community and are in the bottom 20 percent of Nepal’s wealth distribution. Champa is also a girl born to a household very similar to Goma’s, but her parents are from a village in Siraha. Avidit is a boy born to an upper caste household in urban Kathmandu. Both his parents have a university education and come from affluent backgrounds.
In a society where opportunities are equally available for children of all socio-economic backgrounds, Goma, Avidit and Champa would all have equal odds of becoming doctors, or engineers or successful entrepreneurs. But in Nepal, the life trajectory of these children begins to diverge very early in life.
Omer Ahsan is a chartered accountant in the making from Waziristan. He first heard about the Youth Employment Program, a free digital skills program offered by the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Information Technology Board, from discussions on a group chat over Whatsapp, and applied immediately. Within two weeks of completing the digital skills program, Omer has built an online profile and has successfully earned money as a professional content writer.
Pakistan’s Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province is emerging from decades of instability and conflict, and would seem an unlikely place for digital workers to thrive. But with nearly 16 million youth in the province, and few available jobs locally, there is a pressing need to think outside the box in terms of equipping young people with the skills, knowledge and capabilities to take on the future.
In 2015, together with the World Bank, a series of pilot programs were conducted to test a model of digital skill training for youth. Growing connectivity, cloud technology, and the emergence of new business outsourcing models have lowered the barriers to entry for global employment, even for youth in remote parts of Pakistan. The key ingredients to accessing this employment: access to the internet, basic skills, and awareness, and the pilot program tested different approaches to supporting youth to develop online work skills.