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پوهنه د افغانستان د پرمختګ یوازینۍ لاره

Mohammad Homayoon Rahmani's picture
Also available in: English | دری
د پوهنې د کیفیت د لوړولو برنامې لخوا د اړتیا وړ پراختیایي مرستو په برابرو سره د ښوونځیو د ودانیو جوړولو ترڅنګ، له یو زیات شمیر نورو آسانتیاوو لکه د ساینسي لابراتوارونو، کابتونونو او کمپیوتري لابراتوارونو تجهیز څخه ملاتړکوي. د زده کړې چاپیریال د دغو بدلونونو په راتګ سره خورا ښه والی موندلي، د بلخ ولایت په بېلابېلو ولسوالیو کې کورنۍ هڅول شوي، ترڅو خپل ماشومان ښوونځیو ته راولیږې. انځور: فردین واعظي/ نړیوال بانک

زده کړه د افغانستان د پرمختګ لاره پرانیزي: د مشرانو مشهوره خبره ده چې وایې، ښوونه او رزونه د هر هېواد د پرمختګ بنسټ جوړوي. لکه څرنګه، چې له څلورو لسیزو جګړو او ناامنیو وروسته، اوس د هر افغان لپاره تر بل هر وخت ښه معلومات شته، چې په خپلو پښو د دې هېواد دریدل، پرمختګ ته اړتیا لري.

ډېر لېواله وم، چې خپل ټولنیز چاپيریال هر څه ښه جوړ کړم، تر څو له همدې لارې د خپلو ځوریدلو خلکو لپاره د خدمت مصدر وګرځم، له همدې امله، د پوهنې د کیفیت د لوړولو له برنامې سره مې کار پیل کړ، چې موخه یې په افغانستان کې د ښوونې او روزنې د کیفیت او ورته د لاسرسي لوړول و. کله چې مې په دغه برنامه کې کار پیل کړ،  نو د پوهنې د کیفیت د لوړولو برنامه په خپل دویم پړاو کې و، چې لا پخوا د ۲۰۰۸ کال د جنوري په میاشت کې پیل شوی و. د همدې برنامې له لارې، زموږ هڅه دا وه، تر څو په بېلابېلو سیمو په تیره بیا په لرو پرتو سیمو کې له کلیوالي خلکو سره ووینو کومو، چې د پوهنې په اړه ناسم لیدلوري او تعبیرونه لرل، تر څو له هغوۍ سره له نږدې کار وکړو او د پوهنې په اړه د هغوۍ ذهنیت مثبت اړخ ته را واړوو. ښه مې په یاد دي، کله چې مې په ۲۰۱۰ کال کې د پوهنې د کیفیت د لوړولو د برنامې له ټيم سره کار پیل کړ، نو یو زیات شمېر خلک موږ ته راغلل او ویل یې، چې هغوۍ هېڅ وخت دې ته چمتو نه دي، تر څو خپلې نجوني ښوونځي ته ولیږي. خو له ډېرو هلوځلو وروسته، بالاخره دا برنامه بریالۍ شوه.

اوس په پوره ډاډ سره ویلی شم، چې موږ د بلخ ولایت په ټولو سیمو کې له پوره ملاتړ څخه برخمن یو. د بېلګې په توګه، کله چې موږ د بلخ ولایت په کومه ولسوالۍ کې ښوونځي جوړو، نو د ځمکې اخیستلو ته اړتیا نه لرو. بلکې د هغې سیمې خلکو په خپله ځمکه اخیستي او موږ ته یې په اختیار کې راکړې ده. هغوۍ له موږ غوښتل، تر څو د دوی په ملکیت کې ورته ښوونځی جوړ کړو – هان چې ډېرو بېوزلو خلکو هم موږ سره داسې چلند کړی دی. کله چې د بلخ ولسوالۍ چهارسنګ کلي ته ورغلو، چې هلته هېڅ ښوونځی نه و، خو سره له دې، چې د دې کلي ټولو خلکو د بېوزلۍ تر کرښې لاندې ژوند لاره، سره را ټول شول او موږ ته یې د ښوونځي د جوړولو په خاطر ځمکه واخیستله. د پوهنې د کیفیت د لوړولو برنامه د هغه کلي د ماشومانو لپاره ښوونځی جوړ کړ او نن ورځ د هغه کلي ټول ماشومان په هغه ښوونځي کې درس وايي.

معارف یگانه راه ترقی و پیشرفت افغانستان

Mohammad Homayoon Rahmani's picture
Also available in: English | پښتو
برنامه ارتقای کیفیت معارف از طریق پرداخت وجوه انکشافی مورد نیاز زمینه اعمار ساختمان های مکاتب و فراهم آوری سایر تسهیلات همچو تجهیز لابراتوار های ساینسی، تاسیس کتابخانه ها و تجهیز لابراتوار های کمپیوتر را حمایت مینماید. این تغیرات مثبت باعث بهبود فضای درسی گردیده، خانواده ها را در ولسوالی های ولایت بلخ بیشتر تشویق نموده، تا فرزندان شان را به مکتب بفرستند. عکاس: فردین واعظی/ بانک جهانی


تعلیم راه گشای ترقی افغانستان است: سخن معروف بزرگان است که تعلیم تهداب ترقی هر کشور میباشد. چنانچه بعد از سپری شدن  چهار دهه جنگ و نا امنی ها، اکنون برای هر افغان، بیشتر از پیش، معلوم و ملموس گردیده که برای خودکفایی این کشور نیاز به ترقی دارد.  

بسیار علاقمند بودم، تا محیط اجتماعی خود را بهتر سر و سامان دهم، تا از این طریق بتوانم مصدر خدمت به مردم رنج دیده خود گردم، به همین دلیل با برنامهٔ ارتقای کیفیت معارف، که هدف آن بهبود دسترسی و کیفیت تعلیم در افغانستان است، به کار آغاز نمودم. زمانیکه شامل کار با این برنامه گردیدم، برنامهٔ ارتقای کیفیت معارف در مرحله دوم فعالیت های خود قرار داشت، که قبلاً در ماه جنوری سال ۲۰۰۸ آغاز گردیده بود. از طریق این برنامهٔ،  تلاش ما این بود، تا با مردم در محلات مختلف مخصوصاً ساکنان روستاها که دیدگاه و تعبیرات نادرست در مورد تعلیم داشتند، از نزدیک کارنموده ذهنیت منفی آنان را نسبت به اموزش تغیر دهیم. درست به یاد دارم زمانیکه با تیم برنامه ارتقای کیفیت معارف در سال ۲۰۱۰ به کار آغاز کردم، تعداد کثیری از مردم نزد ما آمده، میگفتند که آنها هیچگاه حاضر نیستند، تا دختران شان را به مکتب بفرستند. بعد از سعی و تلاش زیاد، بلاخره  این برنامه موفق گردید.

اکنون به اطمینان کامل گفته میتوانیم که ما از حمایت کامل مردم در محلات در سراسر ولایت بلخ برخوردار هستیم. به گونهٔ مثال، در هیچ ولسوالی ولایت بلخ، به خریدن زمین که روی آن مکتب اعمار کنیم، مجبور نشده ایم. بلکه این اهالی منطقه بودند که هر بار قطعهٔ زمین را خریداری و یا هم در اختیار ما میگذاشتند. انان از ما میخواستند، تا روی ملیکت شان مکتب برایشان اعمار کنیم - حتی فقرترین اهالی منطقه نیز همین کار را میکردند. زمانی در ولسوالی بلخ  به قریهٔ  چهارسنگ برخوردیم که هیچ مکتبی در آن وجود نداشت. باوجودیکه اهالی آن قریه زیر خط فقر میزیستند ولی همهٔ شان گرد هم آمدند، تا قطعهٔ زمینی را برای اعمار یک مکتب خریداری نمایند. برنامه ارتقای کیفیت معارف برای اطفال اهالی آن منطقه یک باب مکتب را اعمار نمود، امروز تمام اطفال قریه متذکره به مکتب میروند.

When in the eye of a storm….

Idah Z. Pswarayi-Riddihough's picture
Abandoned fishing boats lay on the banks of the dried Siyambalankkatuwa reservoir in Sri Lanka's Puttalam District, Aug. 10, 2017. Thomson Reuters Foundation/Amantha Perera
Abandoned fishing boats lay on the banks of the dried Siyambalankkatuwa reservoir in Sri Lanka's Puttalam District, Aug. 10, 2017. Thomson Reuters Foundation/Amantha Perera
This year, yet again, flooding caused by heavy monsoon rains came and receded. Meanwhile, this year alone, more than one million people have been hard hit by the worst drought in 40 years.
 
The media, with few exceptions, have moved on to other topics and a sense of calm pervades. 
 
We are in the eye of the storm -- that misleading lull before mother nature unleashes her fury once again. 
 
In Sri Lanka alone, costs from natural disasters, losses from damage to housing, infrastructure, agriculture, and from relief are estimated at LKR 50 billion (approx. USD 327 million).  The highest annual expected losses are from floods (LKR 32 billion), cyclones or high winds (LKR 11 billion), droughts (LKR 5.2 billion) and landslides (LKR 1.8 billion). This is equivalent to 0.4 percent of GDP or 2.1 percent of government expenditure. (#SLDU2017). Floods and landslides in May 2016 caused damages amounting to US$572 million.   
 
These numbers do not paint the full picture of impact for those most affected, who lost loved ones, irreplaceable belongings, or livestock and more so for those who are back to square one on the socio-economic ladder.
 
Even more alarming, these numbers are likely to rise as droughts and floods triggered by climate change will become more frequent and severe. And the brief respite in between will only get shorter, leaving less time to prepare for the hard days to come.
 
Therefore, better planning is even more necessary. Sri Lanka, like many other countries has started to invest in data that highlights areas at risk, and early warning systems to ensure that people move to safer locations with speed and effect.
 
Experience demonstrates that the eye of the storm is the time to look to the future, ready up citizens and institutions in case of extreme weather.
 
Now is the time to double down on preparing national plans to respond to disasters and build resilience. 

It’s the time to test our systems and get all citizens familiar with emergency drills. But, more importantly, we need to build back better and stronger.  In drought-affected areas, we can’t wait for the rains and revert to the same old farming practices. It’s time to innovate and stock up on critical supplies and be prepared when a disaster hits.
 
It’s the time to plan for better shelters that are safe and where people can store their hard-earned possessions.
 
Mobilizing and empowering communities is essential. But to do this, we must know who is vulnerable – and whether they should stay or move.  Saving lives is first priority, no doubt. Second, we should also have the necessary systems and equipment to respond with speed and effect in times of disasters. Third, a plan must be in place to help affected families without much delay.
 
Fortunately, many ongoing initiatives aim to do just that.

Sri Lankan Winners and exciting news: #StoriesfromLKA photo contest!

Tashaya Anuki Premachandra's picture

The three winning pictures of the online campaign #StoriesfromLKA

World Bank Sri Lanka launched an online campaign titled #StoriesfromLKA during the month of June celebrating World Environment day “Connecting People to Nature”. The campaign included online interactions to learn about World Bank operations related to the environment and a photo competition to appreciate the natural beauty of Sri Lanka that needs to be preserved while Sri Lanka pursues a development drive.
This competition began on the 21st of June and aimed at showcasing the many talented photographers from Sri Lanka as well as celebrating the rich flora and fauna of the country. After the contest ended on June 30th, 167 entries were shortlisted. We asked you which photos were your favorites and you voted on your selections through social media. Your votes helped us narrow down the top three winners, here they are:

How can digital technology transform lives and improve opportunities in Bhutan?

Yoichiro Ishihara's picture
Tech Park
The recently opened Thimphu tech park – Bhutan’s first IT park -

The Kingdom of Bhutan is a landlocked country located high in the eastern Himalayan mountain range with its population 760,000. Up until about 20 years ago, the country was isolated from the world; Bhutan’s first ever television broadcast occurred in 1999. Since then, information communications technology (ICT) has made rapid advancement. Mobile subscriptions increased from 0.4 per 100 people in 2003 to 87 in 2015. The proportion of people using the internet have increased from 0.1% in 1999 to 40% in 2015. Today, all 20 districts and 201 (out of 205) sub-districts are connected through fiber optic cables.

The World Bank’s 2016 World Development Report on “
Digital Dividends” argues that digital technologies have boosted growth, expanded opportunities, and improved service delivery. Use of ICT for development is especially applicable to small states with populations of less than 1.5 million. Another report, “World Bank Group Engagement with Small States” finds that ICT investments can help reduce economic isolation, lessen barriers to trade, promote tourism, and improve mobility. These messages are highly relevant to Bhutan today.

The Government has enthusiastically adopted the use ICT to improve its services to its citizens as described in Bhutan ICT Roadmap and Bhutan E-Government Masterplan. The Government to Citizen (G2C) program, launched in 2005, provides a one-stop-shop for more than 100 services such as procuring a passport. The national ePayment Gateway Infrastructure, established by the Royal Monetary Authority (RMA), the central bank, has enabled citizens to pay for some public services online. Recently, the National Land Commission (NLC) launched eCitizen Portal - an online one-stop shop for transferring property titles online. This has reduced the number of days to transfer ownership of a property from 90 days to 62 days in the capital, Thimphu. More importantly, the NLC is reaching out to the private sector to seek feedback on how to improve its usability by piloting a feedback survey using an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) tool for the first time in Bhutan. The government has also introduced an electronic government procurement system (e-GP) to make optimal use of resources. Given the size of the budget (exceeding 30 percent of GDP), the adoption of e-GP will contribute to effective use of public resources. The World Bank Group has been supporting these efforts through various instruments such as the second Development Policy Credit: Fiscal Sustainability and Investment Climate, which helped get the eCitizen Portal off the ground.

A path toward better health for India’s women

Parvati Singh's picture
 World Bank
In India, Members of a self-help group (SHG) like this one discuss women’s  health issues with female health workers. Credit: World Bank

A little over six years ago, Neelam Kushwaha’s first daughter was born weighing 900 gm at birth, severely underweight. Neelam went into labor while working at the local construction site in Jori village, Rewa, Madhya Pradesh, India. Many people work at such local construction sites in rural areas for daily wages ranging from INR 150-280 (about $2- 4$) per day. Her daughter Manvi, was preterm, and Neelam spent months recovering from child birth complications.

Three years later, when Neelam was pregnant with her younger daughter, Sakshi, she quit wage labor and sought employment at an incense manufacturing unit established by World Bank’s Madhya Pradesh District Poverty Intervention Project (MPDPIP) in 2011. At her new role, she earned more and did not engage in labor intensive work during the final months of her pregnancy. Sakshi was born a healthy 3 kilos.

In the course of my field work supported by South Asia Food and Nutrition Security Initiative (SAFANSI) in 2015, I came across several similar stories.

MPDPIP’s livelihood based approach offered several opportunities towards income supplementation for women self-help groups (SHGs) and rural households through agriculture, dairy/poultry farming and local enterprises, among others.

As evident by Neelam’s experience, MPDPIP’s benefits went beyond income and spilled over into health improvement as well.

I learnt that prior to MPDPIP, childbirth in hospitals was difficult due to prohibitively high costs of travel and hospital stay. Pre-existing government schemes such as the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) offer about INR 1,400 ($20) to rural women who opt for hospital deliveries. However, this payment occurs post-partum, and pre-delivery costs have to be borne upfront by pregnant women.

Post MPDPIP, women were able to opt for hospital deliveries with greater ease due to access to credit from their SHGs. This is particularly relevant for Madhya Pradesh as it has consistently fared poorly with respect to institutional deliveries.

Afghanistan’s energy sector leads the way for gender equality

World Bank Afghanistan's picture
Also available in: دری | پښتو
 Rumi Consultancy/ World Bank
Afghanistan's power utility (DABS) has recently taken steps necessary to ensure that women are involved in all business operations within the organization. Photo: Rumi Consultancy/ World Bank


In Afghanistan, decades of violence, common discriminatory practices, and cultural barriers, including restrictions on mobility, have denied women job opportunities and left them severely underrepresented in all sectors of society.
 
Despite considerable achievements in the last decade, such as the national Constitution guaranteeing equal rights as well as increased enrollment in public schools and universities, achieving gender equality will require widespread social changes.
 
Yet, change is happening and Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat (DABS), Afghanistan’s national power utility, is showing the way.
 
With a workforce of about 7,000, the company employs only 218 women, most of whom at a junior support level. However, under the leadership of its new CEO, DABS management has committed to promoting gender equality.
 
The Planning and Capacity Support Project of the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF), managed by the World Bank, is helping DABS deliver on that commitment. The project organized awareness sessions for DABS staff on gender-related issues and provided specialized training to female employees. DABS has committed to providing internships to female university graduates to ensure women can find job opportunities and fully participate in the energy sector.
 
Realizing that the majority of its female staff lacked the confidence to compete with men, DABS is facilitating access to new job opportunities for women employees and has taken steps to ensure that women are involved in all business operations within the organization.

د افغان کډوالو او بې ځايه شوو د بېرته يو ځاى کولو کاري پلان

Shubham Chaudhuri's picture
Also available in: English | دری
 یوه بې ځایه شوې کورنۍ د کابل د یوې ناحیې په یو کندواله ودانۍ کې. انځور: رومي شرکت/ نړیوال بانک

څرنګه چې د جون ٢٠مه د کډوالو نړيواله ورځ نومول شوې، بايد په ياد ولرو، چې د کډوالو ناورين  يوازې په يوه هېواد کې د پرمختګ مخنيوى نه کوي، بلکې يو بل داسې بحران، چې د ودې په حال کې دى، په خپل هېواد کې د ګڼو نورو خلکو کورنۍ بې ځايه کېدنه ده، دغه خلک د کورنيو بې ځايه شوو په نامه يادېږي. د دغې ستونزې د حل په موخه د سترو سياسي او ټولنيزو فشارونو تر څنګ، دا موضوع د نړۍ په څو هېوادونو کې د ودې په حال کې ده.

په افغانستان کې نږدې ۱،۲ميليونه بې ځايه شوي وګړي شته، چې د امنيتي او طبيعي پېښو په سبب د کورونو پرېښودو ته اړ شوي دي. شپږ ميليونه نور کډوال له ٢٠٠٢ زېږدیز کال راهيسې بېرته خپل هېواد ته راغلي، چې په پورتنۍ ياده شوې شمېره ور زيات شوي، کولى شو  ووايو، چې په هرو پنځو افغانانو کې يې يو راستنېدونکى دى. په ٢٠١٦ زېږدیز کال کې څه باندې ۶۲٠،٠٠٠ افغانان يوازې له پاکستان څخه افغانستان ته را ستانه شوي دي.  د بې ځايه شوو او راستنېدونکو دغه ستر هجوم د افغانستان پر ټولنه او اقتصاد ستر فشار راوړى او تر څنګ يې د هېواد سيمه ييز ثبات ته ستر خطر ګڼل کېږي.

کله چې په افغانستان کې د نړيوال بانک د مسوول په توګه وټاکل شوم، د بې ځايه شوو او بېرته را ستنو شوو ستونزو او د  دغوستونزو د افغان حکومت هڅو ستومانه او خپه کړم. د خپلو لومړيو کاري ورځو په ترڅ کې مې د ٢٠١٦ زېږدیز کال په نومبر کې د کډوالو لپاره د ملګرو ملتونو عالي کمېشنري مرکز څخه ليدنه درلوده. دې مرکز د افغان بېرته راستنېدونکو لپاره د لومړي مرکز په توګه دنده اجرا کوله. په همدې مرکز کې د بېرته راستنو شوو لپاره نغدي، غير نغدي مرستې، د عامه پوهاوي او ساتونکي پروګرامونه تر سره کېدل. 

A roadmap to reintegrate displaced and refugee Afghans

Shubham Chaudhuri's picture
Also available in: دری | پښتو
A displaced family has taken shelter in a ruined house on the outskirts of Kabul. Photo: Rumi Consultancy/ World Bank


As the world marks World Refugee Day on June 20, we must remember that it is not only the refugee crisis that is hampering development efforts in many countries. There is also a silent emerging crisis of people driven from their homes to another part of their own country, people known as internally displaced persons (IDPs). It is a growing issue that several countries are facing, with enormous social and political pressures to address.

In Afghanistan, there are an estimated 1.2 million people who are internally displaced because of insecurity or are being forced to leave their homes due to natural disasters. This is in addition to the nearly 6 million people who have returned to Afghanistan since 2002, making one in five Afghans a returnee. In 2016, more than 620,000 Afghans returned from Pakistan alone.

The massive influx of returnees and IDPs is placing tremendous pressure on Afghanistan’s already fragile social and economic infrastructure and is a threat to regional stability.

When I first took up my position as Country Director of the World Bank for Afghanistan, I was struck by the plight of returnees and IDPs and by how hard-pressed the Afghan government was in dealing with them. During my first days in office, back in November 2016, I visited a United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) center on the outskirts of Kabul. The center serves as the first entry point for returnees where they can receive assistance—including cash—and attend awareness and safety sessions to help them better integrate in their new communities.  

پلان کاری برای اسکان مجدد بیجاشدگان و مهاجرین افغان

Shubham Chaudhuri's picture
Also available in: English | پښتو
یک فامیل بیجاشده در یکی ازنواحی کابل در یک ساختمان مخروبه. عکس: شرکت رومی/بانک جهانی 


ازآنجایکه ٢٠ جون روز بین المللی مهاجرین نامیده شده است؛ باید به یاد داشت که بحران مهاجرین، تنها مانع پیشرفت در یک کشور نیست. بحران دیگری که آهسته در حال رشد است، همانا بیجا شدگان داخلی است بیجا شدگان داخلی به کسانی گفته میشود که از خانه های خودشان به مناطق دیگر همان کشور بیجا میشوند. با وجود فشارهای زیاد سیاسی و اجتماعی برای رسیدگی به آن، این موضوع در چندین کشور جهان در حال رشد است.

در افغانستان، تقریباً ۱،۲ میلیون نفوس بیجاشده وجود دارد، که یا بخاطر مشکلات امنیتی و یا هم بخاطر حوادث طبیعی، مجبور به ترک خانه های شان شده اند. شش میلیون افغان دیگری که از سال ٢٠٠٢ میلادی بدینسو، دوباره به کشور شان برگشته اند را نیز میتوان به آمار فوق علاوه کرد و میتوان گفت که در هر پنج افغان، یک تن آنها از بازگشت کنندگان میباشد. در سال ٢٠١٦میلادی، بیش از ٦٢٠،٠٠٠ افغان، تنها از پاکستان به افغانستان بازگشت نموده اند. این هجوم بزرگ بیجاشدگان و عودت کنندگان، فشار سنگین را بالای جامعه و اقتصاد ضعیف افغانستان وارد کرده، خطر بزرگی به ثبات منطقوی این کشور محسوب میشود.

زمانیکه به حیث ریس دفتر بانک جهانی برای افغانستان تعیین شدم، گرفتاری های دولت در رسیدگی به مشکلات عودت کنندگان و بیجاشدگان در این کشور، مرا سخت نگران ساخت. در جریان روزهای اول کاری ام در نومبر ٢٠١٦ میلادی، براى بازديد از یکی از مراکز کمیشنری عالی سازمان ملل برای پناهندگان  در کابل رفتم. این مرکز به عنوان اولین محل ورود برای عودت کنندگان افغان ایفای وظیفه میکند. کمک های نقدی و غیرنقدی، آگاهی دهی و جلسات ایمنی برای بازگشت کنندگان، در همین مرکز صورت میگیرد.
 

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