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د افغان کډوالو او بې ځايه شوو د بېرته يو ځاى کولو کاري پلان

Shubham Chaudhuri's picture
Also available in: English | دری
 یوه بې ځایه شوې کورنۍ د کابل د یوې ناحیې په یو کندواله ودانۍ کې. انځور: رومي شرکت/ نړیوال بانک

څرنګه چې د جون ٢٠مه د کډوالو نړيواله ورځ نومول شوې، بايد په ياد ولرو، چې د کډوالو ناورين  يوازې په يوه هېواد کې د پرمختګ مخنيوى نه کوي، بلکې يو بل داسې بحران، چې د ودې په حال کې دى، په خپل هېواد کې د ګڼو نورو خلکو کورنۍ بې ځايه کېدنه ده، دغه خلک د کورنيو بې ځايه شوو په نامه يادېږي. د دغې ستونزې د حل په موخه د سترو سياسي او ټولنيزو فشارونو تر څنګ، دا موضوع د نړۍ په څو هېوادونو کې د ودې په حال کې ده.

په افغانستان کې نږدې ۱،۲ميليونه بې ځايه شوي وګړي شته، چې د امنيتي او طبيعي پېښو په سبب د کورونو پرېښودو ته اړ شوي دي. شپږ ميليونه نور کډوال له ٢٠٠٢ زېږدیز کال راهيسې بېرته خپل هېواد ته راغلي، چې په پورتنۍ ياده شوې شمېره ور زيات شوي، کولى شو  ووايو، چې په هرو پنځو افغانانو کې يې يو راستنېدونکى دى. په ٢٠١٦ زېږدیز کال کې څه باندې ۶۲٠،٠٠٠ افغانان يوازې له پاکستان څخه افغانستان ته را ستانه شوي دي.  د بې ځايه شوو او راستنېدونکو دغه ستر هجوم د افغانستان پر ټولنه او اقتصاد ستر فشار راوړى او تر څنګ يې د هېواد سيمه ييز ثبات ته ستر خطر ګڼل کېږي.

کله چې په افغانستان کې د نړيوال بانک د مسوول په توګه وټاکل شوم، د بې ځايه شوو او بېرته را ستنو شوو ستونزو او د  دغوستونزو د افغان حکومت هڅو ستومانه او خپه کړم. د خپلو لومړيو کاري ورځو په ترڅ کې مې د ٢٠١٦ زېږدیز کال په نومبر کې د کډوالو لپاره د ملګرو ملتونو عالي کمېشنري مرکز څخه ليدنه درلوده. دې مرکز د افغان بېرته راستنېدونکو لپاره د لومړي مرکز په توګه دنده اجرا کوله. په همدې مرکز کې د بېرته راستنو شوو لپاره نغدي، غير نغدي مرستې، د عامه پوهاوي او ساتونکي پروګرامونه تر سره کېدل. 

A roadmap to reintegrate displaced and refugee Afghans

Shubham Chaudhuri's picture
Also available in: دری | پښتو
A displaced family has taken shelter in a ruined house on the outskirts of Kabul. Photo: Rumi Consultancy/ World Bank


As the world marks World Refugee Day on June 20, we must remember that it is not only the refugee crisis that is hampering development efforts in many countries. There is also a silent emerging crisis of people driven from their homes to another part of their own country, people known as internally displaced persons (IDPs). It is a growing issue that several countries are facing, with enormous social and political pressures to address.

In Afghanistan, there are an estimated 1.2 million people who are internally displaced because of insecurity or are being forced to leave their homes due to natural disasters. This is in addition to the nearly 6 million people who have returned to Afghanistan since 2002, making one in five Afghans a returnee. In 2016, more than 620,000 Afghans returned from Pakistan alone.

The massive influx of returnees and IDPs is placing tremendous pressure on Afghanistan’s already fragile social and economic infrastructure and is a threat to regional stability.

When I first took up my position as Country Director of the World Bank for Afghanistan, I was struck by the plight of returnees and IDPs and by how hard-pressed the Afghan government was in dealing with them. During my first days in office, back in November 2016, I visited a United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) center on the outskirts of Kabul. The center serves as the first entry point for returnees where they can receive assistance—including cash—and attend awareness and safety sessions to help them better integrate in their new communities.  

پلان کاری برای اسکان مجدد بیجاشدگان و مهاجرین افغان

Shubham Chaudhuri's picture
Also available in: English | پښتو
یک فامیل بیجاشده در یکی ازنواحی کابل در یک ساختمان مخروبه. عکس: شرکت رومی/بانک جهانی 


ازآنجایکه ٢٠ جون روز بین المللی مهاجرین نامیده شده است؛ باید به یاد داشت که بحران مهاجرین، تنها مانع پیشرفت در یک کشور نیست. بحران دیگری که آهسته در حال رشد است، همانا بیجا شدگان داخلی است بیجا شدگان داخلی به کسانی گفته میشود که از خانه های خودشان به مناطق دیگر همان کشور بیجا میشوند. با وجود فشارهای زیاد سیاسی و اجتماعی برای رسیدگی به آن، این موضوع در چندین کشور جهان در حال رشد است.

در افغانستان، تقریباً ۱،۲ میلیون نفوس بیجاشده وجود دارد، که یا بخاطر مشکلات امنیتی و یا هم بخاطر حوادث طبیعی، مجبور به ترک خانه های شان شده اند. شش میلیون افغان دیگری که از سال ٢٠٠٢ میلادی بدینسو، دوباره به کشور شان برگشته اند را نیز میتوان به آمار فوق علاوه کرد و میتوان گفت که در هر پنج افغان، یک تن آنها از بازگشت کنندگان میباشد. در سال ٢٠١٦میلادی، بیش از ٦٢٠،٠٠٠ افغان، تنها از پاکستان به افغانستان بازگشت نموده اند. این هجوم بزرگ بیجاشدگان و عودت کنندگان، فشار سنگین را بالای جامعه و اقتصاد ضعیف افغانستان وارد کرده، خطر بزرگی به ثبات منطقوی این کشور محسوب میشود.

زمانیکه به حیث ریس دفتر بانک جهانی برای افغانستان تعیین شدم، گرفتاری های دولت در رسیدگی به مشکلات عودت کنندگان و بیجاشدگان در این کشور، مرا سخت نگران ساخت. در جریان روزهای اول کاری ام در نومبر ٢٠١٦ میلادی، براى بازديد از یکی از مراکز کمیشنری عالی سازمان ملل برای پناهندگان  در کابل رفتم. این مرکز به عنوان اولین محل ورود برای عودت کنندگان افغان ایفای وظیفه میکند. کمک های نقدی و غیرنقدی، آگاهی دهی و جلسات ایمنی برای بازگشت کنندگان، در همین مرکز صورت میگیرد.
 

From subsistence laborer to Amazon seller: A story from Bihar, India

Mio Takada's picture
 JEEViKA
Kuraisa creating traditional lac bangles . Photo Credit: JEEViKA


Kuraisa lives in the Majhaulia village in Muzaffarpur district of Bihar, India. As an artisan, she and her family create  traditional lac bangles – colorful bracelets made of resinous materials and usually molded in hot kilns – in their small home production unit.
 
In early 2016, Kuraisa joined a self-help group made up of other lac bangle producers and supported through the World Bank’s Bihar Rural Livelihoods Project (BRLP), also known locally as JEEViKA.
 
The self-help group taught Kuraisa new design techniques and loaned her $2,300 to start her own business. One year later , Kuraisa has added two more production units to her home, which provide full time jobs to her relatives  and to as many as 6 additional workers during peak season.
 
Kuraisa’s annual business income has now tripled to $10,000. The self-help group has expanded and nearly 50 artisan families in the village have joined, giving rise to a village enterprise cluster with an annual revenue of $450,000.

Pakistan bridges the gender divide by embracing a digital economy

Priya Chopra's picture
Registration at the Digital Youth Summit. DYS is an age and gender-inclusive diversified digital platform.
Photo Credit: Digital Youth Summit


Standing in line to sign up for the Digital Youth Summit in Peshawar this May, I struck up a conversation with a young woman from Peshawar. I was pleasantly surprised by her level of interest and eagerness in participating at the tech conference.  She was keen to develop an app that would allow her to sell home-based food products at a national level.  She had already gathered a group of friends who would work with her on different aspects of task planning and implementation.  Her enthusiasm was palpable and infectious.  Born and raised in South Asia, I understand the constraints local women face in largely male dominated societies.  I was therefore heartened by the large turn-out of women queuing to enroll for the workshops.  

What can Bangladesh do to deliver more and better jobs for everyone?

Qimiao Fan's picture
Bangladesh woman working in flourescent lamp section
Bangladeshi woman works in the flourescent lamp section of SEED Bangla Limited. Photo Credit: World Bank


Bangladesh has made remarkable progress toward ending poverty and sharing prosperity with more of its people. As recently as 2000, about one in three Bangladeshis lived in extreme poverty based on the national poverty line; today, this has fallen to 13 percent. The poorest 40 percent of the population also saw positive per person consumption growth. Like in most countries, a key reason was broad-based growth in earnings. With more than 20 million people still living in extreme poverty and many workers with insecure jobs, Bangladesh cannot be complacent. It needs faster economic growth that can deliver more and better jobs for everyone.

Good luck and good policies

Frederico Gil Sander's picture

In Brazil, where I come from, we are crazy about football, so I grew up listening to football matches. At the end of a match, the reporters would interview the main scorer of the day, who would often say that he was just lucky to receive the ball at the right place.
 
The commentator would then say that “good luck is a combination of ability and opportunity”. This story comes to mind when thinking of India’s economy over the past two years.
 
India has been lucky indeed. In the fiscal year ending March 2016 (FY16), the sharp decline in oil prices generated what economists call a positive “terms-of-trade” shock, which lifted growth.
 
A terms-of-trade shock means that the things you buy suddenly become cheaper relative to the things you sell, allowing you to buy more things.


 
In the fiscal year that just ended, CSO data that was released recently shows that the good monsoons helped agriculture propel growth. Notwithstanding disruption from demonetization, agricultural wages have continued to grow, along with their purchasing power as rural inflation declined.

But India has also implemented good policies, which allowed it to take advantage of the external shocks. The government took advantage of declining oil prices to eliminate fuel subsidies and hike taxes on carbon-emitting petroleum products, a win for the environment and a win for the exchequer.

What can fuel India's Growth?

Frederico Gil Sander's picture

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The World Bank is releasing its flagship report highlighting the state of the Indian economy, its future growth prospects, the impact of the recent currency exchange on the economy, and the benefits that the progress on the Goods and Services Tax (GST) will have moving forward. 

The unheard voices of women caregivers for people with mental illness

Varalakshmi Vemuru's picture
SHG meeting of people with mental illness and caregivers. (Photo: TNMHP)

Thirty-year old Vijaya (name changed) spent 10 years of her life not talking to anybody. Her parents were daily wage laborers, scraping together a sparse living in India’s southern state of Tamil Nadu. Unaware of any treatment, and afraid of being stigmatized or shunned by their community, they did not disclose their daughter’s illness to anyone. Instead, Vijaya suffered in silence, confined to the house, and hidden from public view.
 
It was only when the Tamil Nadu government’s Mental Health Program (TNMHP) reached out to their community that Vijaya’s life underwent a dramatic change. After six months of working with the program’s community facilitators, Vijaya’s parents took her for treatment, and within a year, the young woman began interacting with others more frequently.
 
Poor mental health places a huge burden on individuals, families, and society. From developed countries to emerging market economies, mental disability – ranging from common mental disorders such as depression to severe mental illnesses and retardation – has profound impacts on people’s economic and social well-being.
 
As cited in “Out of the Shadows: Making mental health a global development priority” in 2010 alone, depression cost an estimated US$800 billion in lost economic output. What’s worse, these costs are expected to double by 2030.
 

په افغانستان کې د نړیوال بانک د بیا همکاریو د پیل د پنځلسمې کالیزې نمانځنه

Raouf Zia's picture
Also available in: English | دری




نړیوال بانک په افغانستان کې خپل فعالیتونه پر ۱۹۷۹ میلادی کال د پخواني شوروي اتحاد له یرغل څخه وروسته و ځندول. ددې ادارې فعالیتونه د ۲۰۰۲ میلادي کال د می په میاشت کې د افغانانو له ضروري اړتیاوو څخه د ملاتړ او ددې هېواد له دولت سره ددې هېواد اتباعوته د خدمتونو د برابرولو له پاره د پیاوړو او ځواب ویونکو بنسټونو د رامینځته کولو په منظور بیاپیل شول.

د می میاشت په کابل کې د نړیوال بانک د فعالیتونو د بیا پیل له نمانځنې سره سمون لري چې په ۲۰۰۲ کال کې وروسته له ډیر ځنډ څخه دفتر پرانیستل شو. د نړیوال بانک له ۱۵ لاسته راوړنو او مهمو فعالیتونو سره په تیرو ۱۵ کلونو کې آشنا شۍ.

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