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How to boost female employment in South Asia

Martin Rama's picture
What's driving female employment in South Asia to decrease


South Asia is booming. In 2018, GDP growth for the region as a whole is expected to accelerate to 6.9 percent, making it the fastest growing region in the world. However, fast GDP growth has not translated into fast employment growth. In fact, employment rates have declined across the region, with women accounting for most of this decline.

Between 2005 and 2015, female employment rates declined by 5 percent per year in India, 3 percent per year in Bhutan, and 1 percent per year in Sri Lanka. While it is not surprising for female employment rates to decline with economic growth and then increase, in what is commonly known as the U-shaped female labor force function (a term coined by Claudia Goldin in 1995), the trends observed in South Asia stand out. Not only has female employment declined much more than could have been anticipated, it is likely to decline further as countries such as India continue to grow and urbanize.

The unusual trend for female employment rates in South Asia is clear from Figure 1. While male employment rates in South Asia are in line with those of other countries at the same income level, female employment rates are well below.
From the South Asia Economic Focus
Source: South Asia Economic Focus (Spring 2018).

If women are choosing to exit the labor force as family incomes rise, should policymakers worry? There are at least three reasons why the drop in female employment rates may have important social costs. First, household choices may not necessarily match women’s preferences. Those preferences reflect the influence of ideas and norms about what is women’s work and men’s work as well as other gendered notions such as the idea that women should take care of the children and housework. Second, when women control a greater share of household incomes, children are healthier and do better in school. Third, when women work for pay, they have a greater voice in their households, in their communities, and in society. The economic gains from women participating equally in the labor market are sizable: A recent study estimated that the overall gain in GDP to South Asia from closing gender gaps in employment and entrepreneurship would be close to 25 percent.

How data can benefit Nepal

Ravi Kumar's picture

Thirty years ago, almost everyone in Nepal —except for a few professionals and business people—would have been classified as poor by any reasonable international standard.

In 2010, by contrast, 15 percent of Nepalis were considered poor.

Without a doubt, Nepal has made progress.

Now the 761 newly formed—local, provincial, and federal—governments in Nepal aim to provide all Nepalis access to essential public services, eliminate poverty, reduce gender and ethnic inequalities, and ensure environmental sustainability

The hope is that Nepal will reach middle-income status by 2030.

But tracking and monitoring progress against the goals articulated in Nepal’s development vision as well as the global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) impose significant demands on the country.

Unfortunately, the absence of disaggregated data by geography, sex, age, social groups and sub-national level, and more poses an enormous challenge for all levels of governments to properly plan and budget.

As such, Nepal needs to urgently invest in its data and statistics capacity.

Data is the currency for decision making and helps us understand what works and what doesn’t.

For instance, let’s consider a province in Nepal that is keen to improve learning for its public schools’ students.

Without data on students, their gender, age, academic performance, or the number of schools and teachers, the provincial government cannot elaborate an informed plan for its students.

But were policymakers able to access timely and sufficient data, they could decide whether more teachers or more schools are needed. Without data, decisions are just like shooting in the dark and hoping for the best.   

#IndiaWeWant Photo Contest: Shortlisted Entries

Roli Mahajan's picture

The World Bank in India ran the #IndiaWeWant photo competition through our Facebook and Twitter channels, where we invited participants to share photographs capturing the key development priority for India. The #IndiaWeWant photo competition was open for a month and we have received many compelling entries. 

Now it is time for us to choose our winners.

We asked a jury of three members comprising professional and development photographers -- Michael Foley, Anirban Dutta, Anupam Joshi-- to come together and do the honours.

Here are the #IndiaWeWant entries that have made it to the longlist. They will be deliberating over these soon and selecting the WINNER as well as the 9 others, as stated in the rules.

Let us know what you think in the comments section below and if one of your entries has been selected then please do send us an email ([email protected]) with the actual photograph and your details (Name, Phone Number).
 

Banking on women’s empowerment for a sustainable and stronger India 
The global efforts for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals could be accelerated by synergising women's empowerment with environmental conservation. 
Since past 32 years, Barli Development Institute for Rural Women (BDIRW) has been empowering rural and tribal women through organising free 6-monthly residential training program covering literacy, organic-farming, solar-cooking, health and tailoring&cutting. More than 8200 women have been empowered, who are changing the sustainable development horizons of their families and tribal communities (www.barli.org#IndiaWeWant 
In Picture: The women-trainees from Alirajpur (Dhauli, Rita, Angita, Karmi) planting trees in BDIRW campus (Indore, India) 
Photo credit: Yogesh Jadhav
 
For India, developing priority should be the education of girls in rural areas. They enrolled in school in beginning but they are not able to make it till the end, either they are forced to marry at the age of 10 or 13. In future, they are illiterate mothers who cannot read and write properly and also they become a victim of domestic violence as they are unaware about their rights. #IndiaWeWant
Photo Credit: Neha Rawat
To me, development is more than improvement in nation's GDP. It must be conceived as a multidimensional process, involving changes in the entire spectrum through which human capabilities are expanded, like education, healthcare, social participation or the freedom to make choices. The primary objective of development is to benefit people and improve the quality of life, which can only be achieved if all marginalised and excluded groups are equal stakeholders in the process alongwith active involvement in the planning, execution and monitoring of development programs.
The couple below selling lights which are battery operated but thankfully their smiles are not.#IndiaWeWant
Photo Credit: Maneka Naren Yadav‎

Boosting entrepreneurship in rural Afghanistan

Miki Terasawa's picture
Also available in: دری | پښتو
The Afghanistan Rural Enterprise Development Project has linked rural producers, inlcuding saffron farmers with markets to create businesses and provide employment opportunities to many Afghan women and men.
The Afghanistan Rural Enterprise Development Project has linked rural producers, including saffron farmers with markets to create businesses and provide employment opportunities to many Afghan women and men. Photo Credit: AREDP/ World Bank.

Meet Mohammad Naim, a saffron farmer in Afghanistan’s Herat province.  In 2013, Naim launched a new business, the Taban Enterprise Group after he and his partners received training and attended agriculture fairs nationwide.

Taban cultivates, processes, and markets saffron, and since its founding, it has steadily improved the quality of its saffron and expanded operations. Today, the company employs 120 women annually for seasonal work to harvest and process the valuable crop.
 
This business success story started with small savings pooled together by rural men and women like Naim.
 
Since 2010, the Afghanistan Rural Enterprise Development Project (AREDP) has linked rural producers with markets and helped villagers form savings and credit groups to create businesses or expand their small enterprises.

تقویت تشبثات خصوصی و ایجاد فرصت های کار در روستاهای افغانستان

Miki Terasawa's picture
Also available in: English | پښتو
The Afghanistan Rural Enterprise Development Project has linked rural producers, inlcuding saffron farmers with markets to create businesses and provide employment opportunities to many Afghan women and men.
پروژه انکشاف صنایع روستایی افغانستان  ازتولید کنندگان روستایی، به خصوص کسانیکه در عرصه تولید زعفران مشغول کاراند حمایت مینماید، تا نه تنها محصولات شانرا به بازار ها عرضه نمایند، بلکه خود قادر به ایجاد تشبثات و تجارت های کوچک گردند وزمینه های اشتغال زایی بیشتر را برای زنان و مردان فراهم نمایند. عکس: پروژه انکشاف صنایع روستایی افغانستان/ بانک جهانی

با نعیم یکتن از متشبثین محلی در ولایت هرات، که  در عرصه تولید زعفران مصروف کار است، آشنا شوید. در سال ۲۰۱۳ میلادی، نعیم و چند تن از شرکای او پس از اشتراک در یک سلسله برنامه های آموزشی در بخش زراعت و همچنان اشتراک در چندین نمایشگاه داخلی، تصمیم گرفتند یک شرکت تجارتی را بنام تابان تاسیس نمایند. شرکت متذکره که در بخش های کشت، پروسس و فروش محصول زعفران فعالیت را آغاز نمود، در مدت کم توانست با بهبود کیفیت تولید زعفران و گسترش فعالیت های تجارتی فراتر از مرز های افغانستان شهرت کسب نماید. بطور اوسط سالانه ۱۲۰ زن در این شرکت به منظور انجام کار های فصلی زعفران استخدام گردیده، تا در عرصه جمع آوری حاصلات و پروسس این نبات ارزشمند کار نمایند.
 
موفقیت این سرمایه گذاری با سهمگیری و اختصاص هزینه های کوچک پس انداز و قرضه از سوی چند زن و مرد روستایی مانند نعیم آغاز گردیده است.
 
از سال ۲۰۱۰ بدینسو پروژه انکشاف صنابع روستایی افغانستان تولید کنندگان روستایی را با بازار ها وصل ساخته و همزمان با آن از طریق گروپ های پس انداز و گروپ های قرضه قریه، روستاییان را کمک نموده، تا برایشان تجارت های کوچک ایجاد نموده و یا تشبثات کوچک شان را توسعه دهند.

د افغانستان په کلیوالو سیمو کې د خصوصی تشبثاتو او د کارموندنی د فرصتونو پیاوړتیا

Miki Terasawa's picture
Also available in: English | دری
The Afghanistan Rural Enterprise Development Project has linked rural producers, inlcuding saffron farmers with markets to create businesses and provide employment opportunities to many Afghan women and men.
د افغانستان د کلیوالي صنایعو د پراختیا پروژه له ټولو کلیوالو تولید کوونکو، بالخصوص له هغو بزګرانو څخه چې د زعفرانو د کښټ او پروسس په برخه کې کار کوي، مالي  او تخنیکي ملاتړ برابروي. په دې توګه نه یوازې، چې بزګران به وتوانیږي څو خپل محصولات بازارونو ته عرضه کړي، بلکه خپله به کوچني تجارتونه او تشبثات پرانیزي او د ښځو او نارینه وو لپاره به د کارموندنې فرصتونه برابر شي. انځور: د افغانستان د کلیوالي صنایعو د پراختیا پروژه/ نړیوال بانک

د زعفرانو د کښت چارو کې د هرات ولایت د یوه بریالي متشبث نعیم سره وپیژنئ. په ۲۰۱۳ کال کې نعیم او څو نورو شریکانو یې وروسته له دې چې د کرني په څو ښونیزو برنامو، او کورنیو نندارتونونو کې ګډون وکړ نو د تابان په نامه د یوه سوداګریز شرکت په جوړولو یې پیل وکړ. نوموړی شرکت چې د زعفرانو د کښت، پروسس او خرڅلاو په برخه کې فعالیت کوي، په ډیر کم وخت کې وتوانید د زعفرانو د کیفیت په لوړولو سره  د خپل سوداګریز فعالیتونو شهرت د افغانستان تر پولو واړوي. اوس مهال په منځنۍ توګه دغه شرکت په کال کې ۱۲۰ ښخې د زعفرانو د فصلی چارو لپاره ګوماري، تر څو د دغه ارزښتناک بوټي  د حاصلاتو د راټولولو او پروسس چارې پر مخ بوزي.
 
د دغه پانګه اچونې د بریالیتوب کیسه د سپما او پورونو لپاره د کوچنیو نغدي ونډه اخیستنو  په وسیله د نعیم په شان دڅو نارینه وو او ښخو له خوا پیل شوه.
 
د ۲۰۱۰ کال نه را پدیخوا د افغانستان د کلیوالي صنایعو د پراختیا پروژې، کلیوال تولید کوونکي له بازار سره وصل کړل او همدارنګه د کلي سپما او پورونو د ګروپونو په واسطه یې  له کليوالي خلکو سره مرسته وکړه تر څو ورته کوچني تجارتونه جوړ او کوچني تشبثاتو ته وده ورکړي.

A Pakistani daughter and her destiny

Sameera Al Tuwaijri's picture



Koshi is 4 days old. She was born in a small village near Hyderabad (Sindh, Pakistan) and is one of four siblings – all girls, all under the age of 10. Her parents were hoping that this time it would be a boy, but perhaps better luck next time? Her mother is worried that if she doesn’t give birth to a boy, she will be stigmatized. Family planning is out of the question – not that she and her husband have even discussed this. She worries about her girls’ well-being too. They are underweight and get sick a lot. She wants them to grow up healthy and get an education. Koshi’s father is worried about them too. He is a tenant farmer with a meager income. He already struggles to provide the basic necessities – food, clothing, shelter. Even if they marry young, how will he arrange their dowries? Of course this is only if Koshi and her sisters live long enough.

Koshi’s chances of survival are slim. In Pakistan, 1 in 20 newborns die within the first month of their birth.[i] By age 5, 79 of every 1000 children born die. There is an 11 percent chance that they will not survive beyond age 14 years.[ii] The situation in Sindh is worse than the national average, and the risk of deaths is higher in its rural areas where access to healthcare and other social services is more limited. Investing in the health and well-being of the population, especially the youth is pivotal for Sindh’s economic growth and development.

Having a primary health center near the village and local lady health workers for example will improve the girls’ chances of access to healthcare and childhood immunization – necessary for protection against diseases such as measles, polio, and diphtheria that still take a heavy toll on children’s lives. It also improves the mother’s access to skilled birth attendance. Skilled attendance at birth reduces newborn deaths by 43 percent[iii] and maternal deaths by 66.67 percent.[iv]

In South Asia, poor rural women have begun to set up lucrative new businesses

Adarsh Kumar's picture

Across South Asia, our agriculture and rural development projects are helping transform the lives of poor rural women. From daily wage laborers they are now becoming entrepreneurs who generate jobs for others. Over the last decade, these projects have supported an estimated 5 million micro and small entrepreneurs, most of whom are women.
 
Asha, from Udaipur District in Rajasthan, used to sell vegetables in a nearby town.   Over time, this traditional village woman observed that flowers were in demand near the town’s main temple for use as ritual offerings. With encouragement from Manjula, a micro enterprise consultant under the Bank’s Rajasthan Rural Livelihoods Project (RRLP), Asha began cultivating marigolds on part of her family farm where millets had always been grown.  Manjula helped Asha draw up a basic business plan for a floriculture enterprise, taught her how to estimate potential expenses and earnings, and the way to maintain accounts. Asha now sells flowers at more than three times the price of her traditional millet crop, and her annual income has increased by 35%. She has devoted a larger area of her farm to floriculture, and started a nursery to grow flower saplings to sell to other aspiring marigold farmers.  Asha is now looking to expand her sapling nursery by renting more land, for which she is seeking a bank loan.

Outside Kathmandu in Nepal, Ambika Ranamgar used to work for building contractors, cutting marble and laying tiles in houses under construction. Then she struck out on her own. With encouragement and support from a community mobilizer under the Nepal Poverty Alleviation Fund (NPAF), Ambika took a loan of Rs. 80,000 ($740) to buy her own equipment, including a marble-cutting machine and a generator to power the machines during the city’s frequent power cuts. She then scouted for work visiting local hardware stores, and gradually began to get more clients. Ambika’s income has now more than doubled from her daily wage of Rs. 600 to reach between Rs. 1,000 to 1,500 rupees per day. She is now focused on getting more business and managing her supplies and workers.  At the time we visited her, Ambika had employed five workers, including her husband, and was busy laying the flooring for two houses.

 nepal - Anamika Ramgar

Six ways Sri Lanka can attract more foreign investments

Tatiana Nenova's picture
In 2017, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) into Sri Lanka grew to over $1,710 billion. But Sri Lanka still has ways to go to attract more FDI.
In 2017, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) into Sri Lanka grew to over $1,710 billion. But Sri Lanka still has ways to go to attract more FDI. Credit: Shutterstock 


To facilitate Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), Sri Lanka launched last week an innovative online one-stop shop to help investors obtain all official approvals. To mark the occasion, this blog series explores different aspects of FDI in Sri Lanka. Part 1 put forth 5 Reasons Why Sri Lanka Needs FDI. Part 3 will relate how the World Bank is helping to improve Sri Lanka’s enabling environment for FDI.

Sri Lanka and foreign investments read a bit like a hit and miss story.

But it was not always the case.

Before 1983, companies like Motorola and Harris Corporation had plans to establish plants in Sri Lanka’s export processing zones. Others including Marubeni, Sony, Sanyo, Bank of Tokyo and Chase Manhattan Bank, had investments in Sri Lanka in the pipeline in the early 1980s.

All this changed when the war convulsed the country and derailed its growth. Companies left and took their foreign direct investments (FDI) with them.

Nearly a decade after the civil conflict ended in 2009, Sri Lanka is now in a very different place.

In 2017, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) into Sri Lanka grew to over $1,710 billion including foreign loans received by companies registered with the BOI, more than doubling from the $801 million achieved the previous year.

But Sri Lanka still has ways to go to attract more FDI.
 
As a percentage of GDP, FDI currently stands at a mere 2 percent and lags behind Malaysia at 3 – 4 percent and Vietnam at 5 – 6 percent.

In Bangladesh, building the skills for the 4th Industrial Revolution

Mustahsin-ul-Aziz's picture
With the onset of the fourth industrial revolution, the landscape of jobs, and the skills required for jobs, are quickly changing around the world. Bangladesh is no exception. Already the Ready-Made Garments (RMG) sector—the leading export sector employing a significant portion of the workforce— is undergoing major automation, which threatens the loss of jobs by the thousands.

This places significant importance on continuous skills training to prepare the workforce ready for future jobs. For this, what are the policy options for Bangladesh? How can the country move forward to ride the wave of the changing tide while leveraging the burgeoning youth population?

To answer these questions, and contribute towards the skills dialogue, an International Skills Conference was organized recently in Dhaka under the theme “Building Brands for Skills of Bangladesh”. The conference brought together national and international policymakers, skills development practitioners, academics, and researchers, from China, Singapore and India for two days of knowledge sharing and networking.
 
A memo agreement between Bangladesh and China

Organized by the Technical and Madrasah Education Division of the Ministry of Education of Bangladesh and supported by the Directorate of Technical Education and the Skills and Training Enhancement Project (STEP), the conference covered topics ranging from connecting skills and jobs to future proofing technical education institutions to raising the brand of skills of Bangladesh. After two days of knowledge sharing, two important themes emerged:

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