In Bangladesh, chronic and acute malnutrition are higher than the World Health Organization’s (WHO) thresholds for public health emergencies—it is one of 14 countries where eighty percent of the world’s stunted children live.
Food insecurity remains a critical concern, especially in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT).
Located in the southeastern part of Bangladesh, CHT is home to 1.7 million people, of whom, about a third are indigenous communities living in the hills. The economy is heavily dependent on agriculture, but farming is difficult because of the steep and rugged terrain.
With support from the South Asia Food and Nutrition Security Initiative (SAFANSI), the Manusher Jonno Foundation (MJF) conducted a food and nutrition analysis which finds that more than 60% of the population in CHT migrates during April – July when food becomes harder to procure.
Based on these findings, MJF helped raise awareness through nutrition educational materials and training. The foundation staff also formed courtyard theatres with local youth to deliver nutrition messages, expanded food banks with nutritious and dry food items, and popularized the concept of a “one dish nutritious meal” through focal persons or “nutrition agents” among these communities.
According to a recent study published in Science Advances, climate change is projected to hit South Asia especially hard.
Impacts will be particularly intense in the food and agriculture sector. A region inhabited by about one-fifth of the world’s people, South Asia and its densely populated agricultural areas face unique and severe natural hazards. Its food system is particularly vulnerable. Climate-smart agriculture (CSA)-- which is an integrated approach to managing landscapes that is focused on increasing agricultural productivity, improving resilience to climate change, and reducing agricultural greenhouse gas emissions—is part of the solution.
The World Bank is working to mainstream climate smart agriculture in South Asia with a series of Climate-Smart Agriculture or “CSA” Country Profiles for Bhutan, Nepal and Pakistan, that were launched recently in collaboration with Governments and relevant stakeholders. The findings in the profiles are specific to national contexts, but there is a common thread. We learned that for South Asia, climate change adaptation and mitigation pose major challenges and opportunities for agriculture sector investment and growth.
The farmers, Government representatives and other stakeholders I met during the CSA Country Profile launches expressed huge interest in learning how they can put CSA into practice. Farmers especially were interested in making CSA part of their daily farming routines. As interest grows, so does momentum to take the CSA agenda forward, from research institutions and high level gatherings into farmer’s fields. As one farmer I met in Pakistan said, “Climate-smart agriculture is Common-sense agriculture.”
Climate change is already impacting Pakistan, which often experiences periods of severe droughts, followed by devastating floods. In the aftermath of the 2010 floods, one fifth of the country’s land area was submerged, damaging the economy, infrastructure and livelihoods, and leaving 90 million people without proper access to food. Moving forward, changes in monsoons and increased temperatures will further challenge the agricultural sector, particularly northern Pakistan where vulnerability to climate change is already high.
At the same time, CSA offers attractive opportunities for strengthening Pakistan’s agricultural sector. Innovative, technological practices like laser land leveling and solar powered irrigation systems and management changes like crop diversification, proper cropping patterns and optimized planting dates could put Pakistan’s food system onto a more climate-smart path. Investments in research to develop high-yielding, heat-resistant, drought-tolerant, and pest-resistant crop varieties as well as livestock breeds could also make a difference.
زه خپله هره کاري ورځ له همکارانو او نورو کاري ملګرو سره د ګډو هڅو په موخه د همغږۍ رامنځته کولو لپاره پیلوم. له هغه ځایه، چې د بڼوالي او مالداري ملي برنامه د یوه غړي په توګه کار کوم، ډیر زیات راضي یم، ځکه د افغانستان د اقتصادي بنسټ د ودې او پیاوړتیا په برخه کې هلې ځلې کوم.
کله چې ما په ۲۰۰۹ زیږدیز کال کې د بڼوالي او مالدارۍ له ملي برنامې سره د عامه اړیکو د مسوول په توګه دنده پیل کړه، هغه مهال د شمال په ولایتونو کې د بزګرانو وضعیت دا وه، چې ډیری شمیر بزګران د بڼوالي، مالداري او د اوبو لګولو سیستم په برخو کي د معاصرو کړنلارو او له پرمختللي ټکنالوژۍ څخه د کارونې په اړه اړین معلومات نه درلودل. د کرنیزو تولیداتو او محصولاتو کچه د بزګرانو او بڼوالو له غوښتنې ډیر لږ وو او د محصولاتو کیفیت د هغوی لپاره یوه ستره ستونزه ګڼل کیده. د یوه کس په توګه، چې د کرنې په برخه کې مې زده کړې کړي او د افغانستان په شمال کې ژوند کوم، کله چې تیر وختونه را یادوم، چې بزګران په هیڅ ډول نه هڅول کیدل او نه تشویق کیدل، څو د بڼوالي په معاصرو تخنیکونو سمبال شي. دا په داسې حال کې ده، چې بزګرانو د خپل ژوندون لپاره نه ستړي کیدونکي هڅې کولې، خو عواید یې ډیر لږ وو.
د بزګرانو لپاره د پروژې پلي کولو د پیل پړاو ستونزمن وو، څو هغوی د بڼوالي او مالدارۍ ملي برنامې باندې باور وکړي، خو د وخت په تیریدو سره په تدریجي ډول دا ثابته شوه، چې هغه عصري تګلارې، چې بزګران او بڼوالان له هغه سره اشنا شول، ډیر زیات اقتصادي اغیزمنتیا او مولدیت لري. دا برنامه د بڼوالي او مالداري سنتي طریقو له منځه وړلو او پر ځای یې د معاصرو او ننۍ منل شویو معیارونو پر بنسټ د کړنلارو ځای پر ځای کولو باندې تمرکز کوي. د بیلابیلو میوو د نیالګیو کینولو سره د نویو بڼونو د جوړولو طرحه په داسې ډول پلي شوه، چې د هغه لپاره بازارموندنه ډیره ساده وه او په عین حال کې د هر ولایت له جغرافیايي موقعیت، اوبو او هوا له شرایطو سره ورته والی ولري.
Every working day, I work closely with my colleagues and coordinate with other stakeholders. I am happy with my job as a member of the National Horticulture and Livestock Project (NHLP) because we work to strengthen rural development, the foundation of Afghanistan’s economy.
When I joined NHLP as the information and communication officer in 2009, I realized that farmers in northern Afghanistan were all but unaware of improved practices and technologies in horticulture, livestock, and irrigation systems. Their production and productivity were low, and maintaining consistent product quality was a challenge. As a person who studied agriculture and has lived in northern Afghanistan, I remember that farmers were never convinced by the idea of adopting modern horticultural techniques and, despite their hard work, they earned little.
At the beginning of the project, it was hard for the farmers to trust NHLP, the new techniques that were introduced were proven to be more efficient and economically viable. The project is transforming the traditional system of horticulture and livestock to a more productive and modern one. The new orchards are designed and laid out well, and planted with fruit saplings that are marketable and adapted to the weather and geography of the province.
هر روز کاری خود را در ایجاد هماهنگی به منظور تلاش های مشترک با همکاران و سایر شرکای کاری اغاز مینمایم. ازاینکه به صفت یک عضو برنامه ملی باغداری و مالداری ایفای وظیفه مینمایم، بسیار راضی هستم، زیرا ما در راستای رُشد و توانمند سازی بنیاد اقتصادی افغانستان تلاش مینمایم.
زمانیکه من با برنامه ملی باغداری و مالداری به حیث مسؤول ارتباطات عامه در سال ۲۰۰۹ به کار آغاز کردم، درک من از وضعیت دهاقین در ولایت شمال در آنزمان این بود که اکثریت آنان فاقد معلومات کافی در مورد کار شیوه های مدرن و استفاده از تکنالوژی پیشرفته در عرصه های باغداری، مالداری و سیستم های آبیاری بودند. اندازه تولیدات و حاصلات زراعتی کمتر از توقع دهاقین و باغداران بود و کیفیت محصولات یک چالش برای آنان محسوب میشد. به عنوان یک فرد که در بخش زراعت تحصیل نموده ام و در شمال افغانستان زندگی میکنم، زمانی را در گذشته به خاطر می آورم که دهاقین به هیچ وجه ترغیب و تشویق نگردیده ، تا به شیوه های مدرن باغداری روی بیاورند و باوجود آنکه برای امرار معیشت شان تلاش های خستگی ناپذیر مینمودند، اما درآمد شان خیلی ناچیز میبود.
در آغاز مرحله تطبیق پروژه برای دهاقین دشوار بود، تا بالای برنامه ملی باغداری و مالداری اعتماد نمایند، مگر با گذشت زمان به گونه تدریجی به اثبات رسید که شیوه های مُدرن که دهاقین و باغداران با آن آشنا گردیدند، از مؤثریت و مؤلدیت بُلند اقتصادی برخوردار میباشد. محور فعالیت های این برنامه متمرکز به تعدیل و جاگزین ساختن شیوه های عنعنوی باغداری و مالداری به شیوه های مُدرن و مطابق به معیار های پذیرفته شده امروزی میباشد. طرح ایجاد باغ های جدید با غرس نهال های میوه جات متنوع به گونه عملی گردیده است که بازاریابی برای آن سهل بوده و در عین زمان سازگار با شرایط آب و هوا و موقیعت جغرافیایی هر ولایت باشد.
This blog is certainly not about exploding mangoes but about the exploding Pakistani populace. The recent reactions of surprise on results of the census seems bewildering. Pakistan’s population is now over 207 million with a growth rate of 2.4 percent per year since the last census in 1998. The results were predictable and expected, as Pakistan has not implemented any large-scale population related interventions for over a decade. We should not be expecting results because inaction does not usually deliver them.
Pakistan’s efforts to reduce fertility and population growth were transformed during the 1990s. The period between 1990-2006 saw effective policy making under the Social Action Program with multiple interventions e.g. expansion of public sector provision, large scale private sector participation including social marketing innovations, improving access to women through community based providers. All the right things that delivered huge results. Fertility declined from around seven to four children per woman, and contraceptives use increased from 10% to over 30% - a 300% increase. Appropriate actions delivered results and some still can be photocopied and expanded on scale for making progress.
I first met Saman in the early 1990s in Delhi. Over the years, our paths diverged. When I re-engaged on South Asia, I ran into Saman again. We re-connected instantly, despite the long intervening period. This was easy to do with Saman—soft-spoken, affable, a gentleman to the core. He bore his considerable knowledge lightly.
Despite his premature passing away in June 2017, he left a rich and varied legacy behind him. I will confine myself to discussing his insights on regional cooperation in South Asia, based on his public writings and my interactions with him.
Saman was a champion of deeper economic linkages within South Asia. He was also pragmatic.
Along with a few other regional champions, Saman, as the head of the Institute of Policy Studies in Colombo, helped to kick-start the “South Asian Economic Summit”, or SAES, in Colombo in 2008, to provide a high-profile forum for dialogue on topical issues, especially South Asian regional integration. It is remarkable that the SAES has endured, without any gap. The fact that the policy and academic fraternity meet with unfailing regularity, despite on-and-off political tensions in the region, is testimony to its value.
Saman repeatedly stressed that Sri Lanka has been able to reap benefits from the India-Sri Lanka FTA (ISFTA), contrary to the general belief. His arguments were powerful: the import-export ratio for Sri Lanka improved from 10.3 in 2000 (the start of the ISFTA) to 6.6 in 2015; about 70 percent of Sri Lanka’s exports to India get duty-free access under the FTA, but less than 10 percent of Sri Lanka’s imports from India come under the FTA (since India provided “special and differential treatment” to Sri Lanka).
But how confident are we that the available data on economic activity paints an accurate picture of a country’s performance?
Measuring Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the most standard measure of economic activity, is especially challenging in developing countries, where the informal sector is large and institutional constraints can be severe.
In addition, many countries only provide GDP measures annually and at the national level. Not surprisingly, GDP growth estimates are often met with skepticism.
New technologies offer an opportunity to strengthen economic measurement. Evening luminosity observed from satellites has been shown to be a good proxy for economic activity.
As shown in Figure 1, there is a strong correlation between nightlight intensity and GDP levels in South Asia: the higher the nightlight intensity on the horizontal axis, the stronger the economic activity on the vertical axis.
However, measuring nightlight is challenging and comes with a few caveats. Clouds, moonlight, and radiance from the sun can affect measurement accuracy, which then requires filtering and standardizing.
On the other hand, nighlight data has a lot advantages like being available in high-frequency and with a very high spatial resolution. In the latest edition of South Asia Economic Focus, we use variations in nightlight intensity to analyze economic trends and illustrate how this data can help predict GDP over time and across space.
Yet, these deficiencies -- often referred to as ‘hidden hunger’ -- go largely unnoticed and affect large populations.
Night blindness, a condition afflicting millions of pregnant women and children, stems from low intake of foods rich in essential nutrients like Vitamin A.
Budget constraints limit access to nutrient-rich foods for many families, who are unaware or unable to afford a nutritious diet.
National programs help supplement diets with Iron and Vitamin, but their scope is too narrow to adequately address these deficiencies.
Fortified Milk Helps Increase Vitamins Intake
When fortified with vitamin A and D, milk, which remains a staple for many Indians, can help alleviate dietary deficiencies when supplementation is not available.
Food fortification is a relatively simple, powerful and cost-effective approach to curb micronutrient deficiencies. It is in general socially accepted and requires minimal change in existing food habits.
The process is inexpensive and costs about 2 paisa per liter or about one-tenth of a cent. And because it only adds a fraction of daily recommended nutrients, the process is considered safe.
For these reasons, food fortification has been successfully scaled up in some emerging economies.
However, except for salt fortification with iodine, India has not yet achieved large-scale food fortification.
With India’s rapidly growing dairy industry, large-scale milk fortification of Vitamins A and D is a robust vehicle for increasing micronutrients intake across the population.