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Poverty

علی الرغم چالشهای موجود، ایا تحکیم اینده مرفع در افغانستان ممکن است؟

Christina Wieser's picture
Also available in: English | پښتو
 Rumi Consultancy/ World Bank
براساس اخرین گزارش، فقط بیشتراز نصف اطفال واجد شرایط به مکتب ابتدایه میروند که البته اکثر انها را بچه ها تشکیل میدهد. عکس: شرکت مشورتی رومی/بانک جهانی


با توجه به سرازیر شدن میزان بی سابقه کمک های مالی بین المللی، میزان سطح سواد، شمولیت در مکاتب و دسترسی به خدمات اساسی در افغانستان در جریان سالهای ۲۰۰۷ - ۲۰۰۸ و سپس ۲۰۱۱ - ۲۰۱۲  به طور همه جانبه و گسترده متحول گردیده است. اما وجود پیشرفتها، یافته های آخرین گزارش بانک جهانی، "وضعیت فقر در افغانستان، پیشرفت در معرض تهدید"، حاکی از آنست که کاهش کمک ها و افزایش میزان نا امنی ها در سالهای ۲۰۱۱ - ۲۰۱۲ و ۲۰۱۳ – ۲۰۱۴ میلادی، سیر رشد و پیشرفت در افغانستان را به شدت بطی ساخته، طوریکه در بخش های معارف و همچنان میزان مرگ و میر مادران وضعیت خیلی ها ناگوار گزارش داده شده است.

در این جا سعی مینمایم، تا چگونگی پیشرفت ها در افغانستان را پیرامون چندین شاخص های عمده انکشافی در جریان چند سال اخیر مورد مطالعه قرار دهم.
 

Securing a prosperous future for Afghanistan amidst challenges

Christina Wieser's picture
Also available in: دری | پښتو
 Rumi Consultancy/ World Bank
According to a recent report, just over half of Afghan children attend primary school and most of them were boys. Photo Credit: Rumi Consultancy/ World Bank


Fueled by unprecedented levels of aid, literacy, school enrollment, and access to basic services, Afghanistan made tremendous progress between 2007–08 and 2011–12. However, declining aid and increasing conflict during the period between 2011–12 and 2013–14 slowed progress, especially on education and maternal health outcomes, as documented by our recent World Bank report, the “Afghanistan Poverty Status Update: Progress at Risk.”

In this blog, we look at how Afghanistan has performed across several important development indicators in the last few years.

Six reasons why Sri Lanka needs to boost its ailing private sector

Tatiana Nenova's picture
 Joe Qian / World Bank
A view of the business district in Colombo. Credit: Joe Qian / World Bank

Sri Lanka experienced strong growth at the end of its 26-year conflict. This was to be expected as post-war reconstruction tends to bring new hope and energy to a country.
 
And Sri Lanka has done well—5 percent growth is nothing to scoff at.  
 
However, Sri Lanka needs to create an environment that fosters private-sector growth and creates more and better jobs. To that end, the country should address these 6 pressing challenges:

1. The easy economic wins are almost exhausted

For a long time, the public-sector has been pouring funds into everything from infrastructure to healthcare. Unfortunately, Sri Lanka’s public sector is facing serious budget constraints. The island’s tax to growth domestic product (GDP) ratio is one of the lowest in the world, falling from 24.2% in 1978 to 10.1% in 2014. Sri Lanka should look for more sustainable sources of growth. As in many other countries, the answer lies with the private sector.
 
2. Sri Lanka has isolated itself from global and regional value chains 

Over the past decades, Sri Lanka has lost its trade competitiveness. As illustrated in the graph below, Sri Lanka outperformed Vietnam in the early 1990s on how much of its trade contributed to its growth domestic product. Vietnam has now overtaken Sri Lanka where trade has been harmed by high tariffs and para-tariffs and trade interventions on agriculture.


Sri Lanka dropped down by 14 notches to the 85th position out of 137 in the recent  Global Competitiveness Index.
           
3. The system inhibits private sector growth

Sri Lanka’s private sector is ailing. Sri Lankan companies are entrepreneurial and the country’s young people are smart, inquisitive, and dynamic. Yet, this does not translate into a vibrant private sector. Instead, public enterprises are the ones carrying the whole weight of development in this country.
 
The question is, why is the private sector not shouldering its burden of growth?


From the chart above, you can see how difficult it is to set up and operate a business in Sri Lanka. From paying taxes to enforcing contracts to registering property, entrepreneurs have the deck stacked against them.
 
Trading across borders is particularly challenging for Sri Lankan businesses. Trade facilitation is inadequate to the point of stunting growth and linkages to regional value chains. The chart explains just why Sri Lanka is considered one of the hardest countries in the world to run a trading business. Compare it to Singapore–you could even import a live tiger there without a problem.

Sri Lanka, you have a right to know!

Idah Z. Pswarayi-Riddihough's picture
Sri Lanka's Right to Information act (RTI) can help citizens hold governments accountable and encourage citizens to participate actively in their democracy.
Sri Lanka's Right to Information act (RTI) can help citizens hold governments accountable and encourage citizens to participate actively in their democracy.


Today, the world marks the International Day for the Universal Access to Information. Fittingly, we in Sri Lanka, celebrate 7 months since the Right to Information (RTI) Bill was enacted.  

The product of a slow and steady reform process, RTI is a milestone in Sri Lanka’s history.

Yet how many citizens know about its benefits?

As open access to information takes international center stage today, I’m hoping Sri Lanka’s Right to Information Bill, one of the world’s most comprehensive, will get the attention it deserves.

There is indeed much to celebrate.

Civil society organizations and private citizens are putting Sri Lanka’s RTI to the test. Diverse requests have been filed, from questions relating to how investments are made for the Employees’ Provident Fund (EPF) to how soil and sand mining permits have been allotted in districts like Gampaha.

Interestingly, people living in rural areas are more aware -- and vocal -- of their rights to know than people in urban areas.

The government is making steady progress. In the last six months, more than 3,000 information officers have been recruited. An independent RTI Commission enforces compliance and acts on those who do not follow the law. If, for example, an information officer refuses to release information pertaining to a citizen’s life, they must provide a valid reason or face legal penalties.

In the next few years, the Sri Lankan bureaucracy faces the huge task of revamping its record management, including its land registration system. This reform is an opportunity to live up to RTI’s ambitions of open governance and help citizens access land title information and records that give them a legal title to their property.

Reforms Sri Lanka needs to boost its economy

Idah Z. Pswarayi-Riddihough's picture
 Joe Qian/World Bank
The Colombo Stock Exchange. Credit: Joe Qian/World Bank

Many Sri Lankans understand the potential benefits of lowering trade costs and making their country more competitive in the global economy. The majority, however, fear increased competition, the unfair advantage of the private sector from abroad and limited skills and innovation to compete.

Yet, Sri Lanka’s aspirations cannot be realized in the current status quo.  

While changes in trade policies and regulations will undeniably improve the lives of most citizens, I’m mindful that some are likely to lose. However, many potential gainers of the reforms who are currently opposed to them are unaware of their benefits.

Implementing smart reforms means that government funds will be used more effectively for the people, improve access to better healthcare, education, basic infrastructure and provide Sri Lankans with opportunities to get more and better jobs. Let me focus on a few reforms that I believe are critical for the country.  First, Sri Lanka needs to seek growth opportunities and foreign investment beyond its borders.    

First, Sri Lanka needs to seek growth opportunities and foreign investment beyond its borders.

Experience shows that no country in the world today has been able to create opportunities for its population entirely within its own geographic boundaries. To succeed in this open environment, Sri Lanka will need to improve its skills base, better understand supply and demand chains as well as produce higher quality goods and services

Experience shows that no country in the world today has been able to create opportunities for its population entirely within its own geographic boundaries. To succeed in this open environment, Sri Lanka will need to improve its skills base, better understand supply and demand chains as well as produce higher quality goods and services.

Sri Lankan Winners and exciting news: #StoriesfromLKA photo contest!

Tashaya Anuki Premachandra's picture

The three winning pictures of the online campaign #StoriesfromLKA

World Bank Sri Lanka launched an online campaign titled #StoriesfromLKA during the month of June celebrating World Environment day “Connecting People to Nature”. The campaign included online interactions to learn about World Bank operations related to the environment and a photo competition to appreciate the natural beauty of Sri Lanka that needs to be preserved while Sri Lanka pursues a development drive.
This competition began on the 21st of June and aimed at showcasing the many talented photographers from Sri Lanka as well as celebrating the rich flora and fauna of the country. After the contest ended on June 30th, 167 entries were shortlisted. We asked you which photos were your favorites and you voted on your selections through social media. Your votes helped us narrow down the top three winners, here they are:

آیا د متشبثینو لپاره کوچنۍ مالي مرستې، زدکړې، سپارښتنې او هغوی ته سلا مشورې کولای شي، څو په افغانستان کې کاري فرصتونه رامنځته کړي؟

Pratap Sinha's picture
Also available in: English | دری
نوریه یوه له هغو متشبثو مېرمنو څخه چې د نتیجه برنامې په مرستې یې خپله د قالینو د اوبدولو دستګاه فعاله کړې، وايي: " د نتیجه برنامې په مرسته اوسمهال موږ وتوانېدلو، چې خپل د اړتیا وړ وسایل او اومه مواد وپیرو او وروسته له دې ځان ته غالۍ تولید کړو." عکاسي: د رومی مشورتي شرکت/ نړیوال بانک

څرنګه چې نړیوال هر کال د اګسټ میاشتې ۱۲مه نیټه د ځوانانو نړیوالې ورځې په توګه نمانځي، د افغانستان ډیری خلک، په ځانګړې توګه ځوان نسل هڅه کوي، څو د خپل ځان لپاره د ځلانده او بریالي راتلونکي په موخه غوره او مناسبه لارې وپلټي او ومومي. د ملګرو ملتونو د وګړیو صندوق د معلوماتو پر بنسټ، د افغانستان شاوخوا ۶۳ سلنه وګړي د ۲۵ کلنو څخه لږ عمر لري، چې دغه حالت د افغانستان وګړي د سن پر بنسټ د شیب لرونکي هرم (steep pyramid) جوړښت په بڼه انځور شوی او دا په چټکۍ سره په هېواد کې د ځوان نسل د زیاتیدو ښکارندوي کوي. دا په داسې حال کې ده، چې افغان ځوانان د روغتیا، ښوونې او روزنې، کاري فرصتونو او جنسیتي نا انډول په برخو کې له سختو ستونزو او خنډونو سره مخ دي.

د دې ستونزو د حل په موخه د کار، ټولنیزو چارو، شهیدانو او معلولینو وزارت د کلیوالو او دویمه درجه ښارونو هغه ځوان نسل، چې د زدکړو کچه یې ټیټه ده، د خپل وړیا مالي مرستو آزمایښتي پروګرام تر پوښښ لاندې نیولي. د یادولو وړ ده، چې د کمزوري اقتصادي ودې او ناڅرګند لیدلوري ته په کتو د دغه کوچني او بلاعوضه مالي مرستې موخه دا ده، څو هغه ځوانان، چې غواړي پانګونه وکړي یا هم د ځان لپاره کار وکړي، د هغوی لپاره په خصوصي سکتور کې کاري موقع برابره کړي او ملاتړ یې وکړي. دا برنامه د افغانستان د بیارغونې صندوق په مالي مرستې د نتیجه پروژې تر پوښښ لاندې پلي کیږي.

کله چې ما، ۲۳ کلنه فریحه د کوچنیو وړیا مالي مرستو ترلاسه کولو لپاره د مرکې پر مهال ولیدله، د دولت لخوا یې هر ډول مالي ملاتړ ته د شک په سترګه کتل، خو د خپلې سینګارتون د راتلونکي او پرانیستلو په اړه یې ډاډ درلود. د فریحې دا هیله وروسته له هغه بشپړه شوه، چې د کوچنی وړیا مالي مرستې (۵۰۰ امریکایي ډالره) د ترلاسه کولو خبر یې ترلاسه کړ. فریحې، په لومړیو کې په یوه سینګارتون کې زدکوونکې وه او هلته یې اړین مهارتونه زده کړل. اوسمهال نوموړې له دې مالې مرستې څخه په خپل کسب او کار کې ګټه اخلي او اوسمهال هغه د خپل سینګارتون یوه شریکه ده او مشري یې هم کوي. هغه وايي: " ما د زده کوونکي په توګه په کافي اندازه عواید نه لرل، خو اوسمهال زه په دې کار کې شریکه یم. دا ښه کار دی او د پرمختګ په حال کې دی."

فریحه، د نتیجه پروژې د کوچنیو وړیا مالي مرستو د ګټه اخیستونکي په توګه؛ د لومړنیو مالي زدکړو، بازار موندنې او همدارنګه د کسب او کار او پانګونې لپاره د اړینو موضوع ګانو د زده کولو په موخه د تشبثاتو د پراختیا په ښوونیز پروګرام کې د یوې ښځې په توګه ګډون کړی وو. نوموړې همدارنګه له دې امله هم خوشحاله ښکاري، چې د ښوونیز پروګرام پر مهال یې د تشبث پیلولو په موخه انځوریز کتابونه ترلاسه کړي او عملي کارونو کې یې ګډون کړی او همدارنګه په دې برخه کې یې لومړني معلومات ترلاسه کړي دي.

فریحه د سلګونو ښځو په منځ کې هغه څوک ده، چې د نتیجه پروژې له لارې یې د مالي مرستو ترلاسه کولو لپاره غوره شوې او له دې لارې یې زدکړې کړي دي. تر اوسه له ۱۷۰۰۰ زره غوښتونکیو څخه شاوخوا ۲۵۰۰ کوچنیو سوداګرو د نتیجه پروژې له لارې کوچني بلاعوضه مالي مرستې ترلاسه کړي دي. د دې متشبثینو شاوخوا ۳۰ سلنه ښځې دي. د یادولو وړ ده، چې دا پروژه په کابل، ننګرهار او بلخ ولایتونو کې پلي شوې ده.
 

آیا کمک های مالی کوچک، آموزش و ارایه توصیه ها و مشوره ها برای متشبثین کوچک می تواند فرصتهای کاریابی را در افغانستان ایجاد کند؟

Pratap Sinha's picture
Also available in: English | پښتو
نوریه یکی ازمتشبثین که با حمایت برنامه نتیجه دستگاه  قالین بافی  خودش را فعال کرده است میگوید" با حمایت برنامه نتیجه اکنون ما توانستیم وسایل مورد نیاز و مواد خام خریداری نمایم و بعد ازآن برای خود قالین ببافیم. عکاسی: شرکت مشورتی رومی/بانک جهانی

همان طوری که جهانیان ۱۲ ماه اگست را همه ساله به عنوان روز جهانی جوانان تجلیل مینماید، اکثریت اقشار جامعه افغانستان، بالخصوص طبقه جوان، تلاش می نمایند، تا راه های بهتر و مناسب برای یک آینده درخشان  و موفق را برای خودشان جستجو و دریافت نمایند. براساس معلومات صندوق جمعیت سازمان ملل متحد، در حدود ۶۳ فیصد نفوس افغانستان زیر سن ۲۵ سال قرار دارند که این حالت ساختار اهرم شیب دار (steep pyramid) را با در نظرداشت سن نفوس کشور به تصویر کشیده و انعکاس دهنده افزایش سریع رشد قشر جوان در کشور میباشد. این در حالیست که جوانان افغان بطور قابل ملاحظه­ با چالشها و مشکلات جدی در عرصه های  صحت، تعلیم و تربیه، فرصتهای کاریابی و نابرابری های جنسیتی مواجه  میباشند.

جهت رسیده گی به این چالش ها، وزارت کار، امور اجتماعی، شهدا و معلولین، طبقه  جوان مناطق روستایی و نیمه شهری که سطح تعلیم بلند ندارند، را تحت پوشش برنامه آزمایشی فراهم نمودن کمکهای مالی کوچک بلاعوض قرار داده است. قابل یادآوریست که هدف این کمک مالی کوچک و بلاعوض با در نظرداشت رشد ضعیف اقتصادی وچشم انداز نامطلوب، ایجاد فرصت های شغلی در سکتور خصوصی آنعده جوانانی را که علاقمند ایجاد تشبث / اشتغال خودی اند، مورد حمایت قرار میدهد. این برنامه تحت پروژه نتیجه به کمک مالی صندوق بازسازی افغانستان تطبیق میگردد.

زمانی که من، فریحه ۲۳ ساله، را هنگام مصاحبه انتخاب متشبثین به منظور دستیابی به کمکهای مالی کوچک بلاعوض را ملاقات کردم، در مورد دریافت هر گونه حمایت از طرف دولت در حالت شک و تردید قرار داشت، اما در مورد آینده و راه اندازی آرایشگاهء خودش اطمینان خاطر داشت.  این رویای فریحه، بعد از دریافت خبر کمک مالی کوچک بلا عوض (۵۰۰ دالر امریکایی) تحقق یافت. فریحه، در ابتدا به مدت چهار سال به عنوان شاگرد در یک سالون آرایش مهارتهای لازم را آموخت. اکنون با استفاده از  این کمک مالی برای سرمایه گذاری در کسب و کار خود استفاده نمود و در حال حاضر وی یک شریک و مدیر سالون آرایشگری خود میباشد. وی میگوید: "من به عنوان شاگرد درآمد کافی نداشتم، اما در حال حاضر من یک شریک هستم. این کار خوبی است و در حال بهتر شدن میباشد."

فریحه، به عنوان یکی از مستفید شوندگان کمک مالی کوچک بلاعوض پروژه نتیجه، در کورسهای آموزش انکشاف تشبثات بمنظور آموزش  حسابداری مقدماتی، بازاریابی و همچنین نکات کلیدی برای آغاز کسب و کار/ تشبث به عنوان یک زن اشتراک کرد. او همچنان از دریافت کتاب های تصویری مشرح و کارهای عملی  بخاطر آغاز تشبث در جریان کورس و از اینکه معلومات مقدماتی در این زمینه ها برایش ارائه گردیده است،  بسیار خوشحال میباشد.

Can small grants, training, and mentorship for micro-entrepreneurs create jobs in Afghanistan?

Pratap Sinha's picture
Also available in: دری | پښتو
The NATEJA project supports entrepreneurs like Nooria to start new business. "With support from NATEJA, we were able to purchase the required equipment and
raw material to weave the carpets ourselves," said Nooria. Photo Credit: Rumi Consultancy/ World Bank


As the world marks International Youth Day on August 12, many in Afghanistan, especially the youth, strive to find better ways to make a prosperous future for themselves. According to the United Nations Population Fund, about 63 percent of Afghans are under 25 years of age, reflecting a steep pyramid age structure whereby a large cohort of young people is slowly emerging. Yet, young people in Afghanistan face significant challenges in health, education, employment, and gender inequality.

To tackle these challenges, the Ministry of Labor, Social Affairs, Martyrs and Disabled is targeting youth with low education in rural and semi-urban areas through a pilot micro-grants scheme to support aspiring entrepreneurs in the face of low growth and dim job creation prospects in the private sector. The scheme is implemented under the Non-Formal Approach to Training, Education, and Jobs in Afghanistan (NATEJA) project financed by the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF).

When I saw Fariha, 23, during her selection interview for the micro-grant scheme, she was sceptical of receiving any government support, but confident about her beauty salon idea. It was a dream come true when she got the news of the micro-grant of $500. Fariha had learnt her skills first as a trainee at a beauty salon. After four years working there, she used the grant money to invest in the business and is now a partner and manager in the salon. “I did not earn enough as a trainee, but now I am a partner. It is a good job and it is getting better,” she says.

As a NATEJA grantee, Fariha attended a business training course to learn basic accounting, marketing, and key tips to start a business as a woman. She was also very happy to receive a pictorial, practical, and illustrative business start-up booklet at the training, given her low level of education.

Providing better healthcare in Afghanistan – A view from the field

Fahimuddin Fahim's picture
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Although I have extensive project management experience in Daykundi Province, the scale and impact of the System Enhancement for Health Action in Transition (SEHAT) Program is truly inspiring—for example, the 39 centers that deliver the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) together serve over 77,000 outpatients per month. In October 2016, these centers managed the delivery of 615 babies, with as many as 69 deliveries in Temran Basic Health Center alone.
 
In fact, when it comes to female health, SEHAT has ensured that there is at least one female staff member in every health center. This has partly been possible because of the successful implementation of community-level education programs, such as the Community Midwifery Education (CME) and Community Health Nursing Education (CHNE). The program has also strengthened community-based health care by setting up health Shuras (councils) in all locations covered by SEHAT and implemented specific controls on qualifications and credentials of health workers.
 
SEHAT is a program of the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH), supported by the International Development Association (IDA), the World Bank Group’s fund for the poorest countries, and the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF), in partnership with multiple donors. An NGO, PU-AMI, was contracted by MoPH between 2013 and June 2017 to deliver BPHS in Daykundi, in line with national health goals outlined by the ministry. These goals include reducing mother and child deaths and improving child health and nutrition. Thus, the program focuses on increasing access, building capacity, strengthening coordination, promoting use of monitoring and evaluation data, and enabling better support for pharmaceutical supplies.

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