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Public Sector and Governance

بهبود مدیریت مالی واستفاده از تکنالوژی باعث تأمین شفافیت واعتماد سازی در افغانستان گردیده است

Mohammad Zaher Ebadi's picture
Also available in: English | پښتو
Many government civil servants are now using technology to improve transparency and credibility of government offices in Kandahar Province.
اکنون بسیاری از کارکنان مُلکی دولت با استفاده از تکنالوژی قادر به تأمین شفافیت در ارایه خدمات و اعاده اعتماد بالای دفاتر دولتی در ولایت کندهار گردیده اند. تصویر: تایمنی فلم/ بانک جهانی

استفاده از تکنالوژی در شماری زیادی از دفاتر و ادارات دولتی افغانستان هنوز هم به مثابه یک معیار و نورم رایج نگردیده است. با اینحال، مستوفیت ولایت کندهار، که بیشتر به عنوان یک ولایت نا امن محسوب میشود، با این وسایل تجهیز گردیده و در حال حاضر در نتیجهء تسهیلات بوجود آمده  شفافیت و اعتماد بالای خدمات و فعالیت های دفاتر دولتی افزایش یافته است.

مالیات به مثابه بنیاد اقتصاد هر کشور محسوب میشود. روی این ملحوظ تأمین شفافیت در ساختار های مالیاتی نقش کلیدی را در راستای تأمین اعتماد مالیه دهندگان و تمویل کننده گان بین المللی بالای پروسه های انکشافی ایفا میکند. با توجه به اهمیت این موضوع، تصمیم گرفتیم، تا طرح سیستم مدیریت معلومات مالی افغانستان و سیستم اداره واحد مالیات دولتی را در تحت قیادت و رهبری وزارت مالیه به کمک پروژه اصلاحات مدیریت مالی که از سوی صندوق بازسازی افغانستان تمویل میشود، تطبیق نمائیم. قابل یاد آوریست که ایجاد سیستم اداره واحد مالیات دولتی نیز به حمایت پروگرام مشوقه های صندوق بازسازی افغانستان حمایت گردیده است.

از سال ۲۰۰۷ بدینطرف، زمانی که ما قادر به استفاده از سیستم مدیریت معلومات مالی افغانستان گردیدیم، توانستیم، تا تمام فعالیت های مربوط به مدیریت و تطبیق بودجه، جمع آوری مالیات و پرداخت معاشات را مطابق زمان بندی دقیق آن اجرا نمایم. سیستم مجهز کمپیوتری در سیستم مدیریت معلومات مالی افغانستان زمینه دسترسی کاربران متعدد را به گونه گسترده به معلومات مالی و ثبت در هر محل و هر زمان میسر میسازد. این درحالیست که دسترسی به این اطلاعات در سیستم های ثبت معلومات در اوراق ژورنال ها به گونه سنتی ممکن نبود.

د افغانستان په مالي مدیریت کې ښه والی او له تکنالوژۍ څخه ګټه اخیستنه په چارو کې د ړونتیا او د باور جوړونې لامل ګرځیدلې

Mohammad Zaher Ebadi's picture
Also available in: English | دری
Many government civil servants are now using technology to improve transparency and credibility of government offices in Kandahar Province.
اوس مهال د دولت ډیری شمیر مُلکی کارکوونکي له تکنالوژۍ څخه په ګټه اخیستنې سره د خدمتونو په وړاندې کولو کې د ړونتیا د تامین او پر دولتي دفترونو د خلکو د ډاډ او باور په بیا ترلاسه کولو باندې توانیدلي دي. انځور: تایمنی فلم/ نړیوال بانک

د دولت په یو زیات شمیر دفترونو کې له تکنالوژۍ څخه ګټه اخیستنه اوس هم د یو معمول معیار او نورم په توګه نده ترویج شوی. خو په ورته مهال، د کندهار ولایت مستوفیت چې تر ډیره د یو نا امن ولایت په توګه یادیږي، په دغو وسایلو تجهیز شوی او اوسمهال د رامینځته شویو آسانتیاوو په پایله کې ړونتیا او د دولتي دفترونو پر خدماتو د باور کولو لړی یی پیاوړې کړې ده.

مالیه د هر هیواد د اقتصاد بنسټ بلل کیږي. له همدې کبله په مالي بنسټونو او ادارو کې د ړونیا تامین په پراختیايي چارو باندې د مالیه ورکوونکو او نړیوالو تمویل کوونکو لپاره د باور او ډاډ  په رامینځته کولو کې مهمه ونډه په غاړه لري. د دغې موضوع مهم والي ته په کتلو سره، موږ تصمیم ونیوه، چې افغانستان د مالي معلوماتو د مدیریت سیستم او د دولتي مالیاتو د واحده ادارې سیستم د مالیې وزارت تر مشري لاندې د مالي مدیریت د اصلاحاتو پروژې په ملاتړ، چې د افغانستان د بیارغونې صندوق لخوا تمویلیږي، رامینځته او تطبیق کړو. د یادولو وړ ده، چې د دولتي مالیاتو د واحده ادارې سیستم د افغانستان د بیارغونې صندوق د مشوقو پروګرام په ملاتړ تمویل شوی.

له ۲۰۰۷ زیږدیز کال راپدیخوا، کله چې موږ د افغانستان د مالي معلوماتو مدیریت له سیستم څخه په ګټه پورته کولو بریالي شولو، نو په دې وتوانیدلو، ترڅو د بودجې د مدیریت او تطبیق چارې، د مالیاتو راټولول او د تنخواوو ورکړه په ټاکل شوي وخت سره پلې کړو. د افغانستان د مالي معلوماتو مدیریت سیستم کې د مجهزو کمپیوتري آسانتیاوو له امله په یو وخت کې بیلابیل کسان په پراخه کچه کولی شي، چې مالي معلوماتو ته لاسرسۍ او د هغو ثبت په هر ځای کی او هر وخت کې پلي کړي. دا په داسې حال کې ده، چې د معلوماتو د پخواني ثبت سیستم له مخې چې په دودیزډول به په ژورنالونو کې لیکل کیدل، خورا ستونزمن و.

New financial management technologies improve transparency and trust in Afghanistan

Mohammad Zaher Ebadi's picture
Also available in: دری | پښتو
Many government civil servants are now using technology to improve transparency and credibility of government offices in Kandahar Province.
Many government civil servants are now using technology to improve transparency and credibility of government offices in Kandahar Province. Photo credit: Taimani Films/World Bank

The use of technology in Afghanistan’s government offices is not yet the norm. However, in the Directorate of Ministry of Finance (Mostofiat) in Kandahar Province, a province associated more with insecurity than with technology, we have used the power of technology to improve transparency and credibility of government offices. 

Finance is the backbone of any country’s economy. Therefore, it is very important for it to be transparent and credible so that citizens as well as donors feel committed to the development process. With this in mind, we decided to implement the Afghanistan Financial Management Information System (AFMIS) and Standard Integrated Government Tax Administration System (SIGTAS), with the help of the Public Financial Management Reform (PFMR), a project implemented by the Ministry of Finance (MoF) with support from the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF). SIGTAS was also supported through the ARTF Incentive Program.

Since 2007, when we started using AFMIS, we have been able to manage and execute budget-related activities, collect revenue, and pay salaries on time. A computerized system, AFMIS enables multiple users to access financial information and records, whenever and wherever they want. This was not possible with manual records.

The Legacy of Saman Kelegama

Sanjay Kathuria's picture
Saman Kelegama, a Sri Lankan economist and the Executive Director of the Institute of Policy Studies (IPS Sri Lanka) died prematurely in June 2017. He was a champion of deeper South Asian cooperation.
Saman Kelegama, a Sri Lankan economist and the Executive Director of the Institute of Policy Studies (IPS Sri Lanka) died prematurely in June 2017. He was a champion of deeper South Asian cooperation. Credit:  Institute of Policy Studies

I first met Saman in the early 1990s in Delhi.  Over the years, our paths diverged.  When I re-engaged on South Asia, I ran into Saman again. We re-connected instantly, despite the long intervening period.  This was easy to do with Saman—soft-spoken, affable, a gentleman to the core.  He bore his considerable knowledge lightly.  

Despite his premature passing away in June 2017, he left a rich and varied legacy behind him. I will confine myself to discussing his insights on regional cooperation in South Asia, based on his public writings and my interactions with him.

Saman was a champion of deeper economic linkages within South Asia. He was also pragmatic. 

Along with a few other regional champions, Saman, as the head of the Institute of Policy Studies in Colombo, helped to kick-start the “South Asian Economic Summit”, or SAES, in Colombo in 2008, to provide a high-profile forum for dialogue on topical issues, especially South Asian regional integration. It is remarkable that the SAES has endured, without any gap. The fact that the policy and academic fraternity meet with unfailing regularity, despite on-and-off political tensions in the region, is testimony to its value.

Saman repeatedly stressed that Sri Lanka has been able to reap benefits from the India-Sri Lanka FTA (ISFTA), contrary to the general belief. His arguments were powerful: the import-export ratio for Sri Lanka improved from 10.3 in 2000 (the start of the ISFTA) to 6.6 in 2015; about 70 percent of Sri Lanka’s exports to India get duty-free access under the FTA, but less than 10 percent of Sri Lanka’s imports from India come under the FTA (since India provided “special and differential treatment” to Sri Lanka).

Share your views on Sri Lanka’s Vision to End Poverty: The Road to 2025

Mariam Yousef's picture


October 17, 2017
– Today marks the 25th anniversary of the United National declaration of the International Day to End Extreme Poverty. Compared to many other countries in the world, Sri Lanka has done well in ending extreme poverty. Between 2002 and 2012, extreme poverty in Sri Lanka decreased from 8.3% to 1.9% while the national poverty level fell from 22% to 6.7% during the same period. Read the latest poverty brief and the two-part series on understanding poverty in Sri Lanka to learn more.

The big picture of poverty in Sri Lanka may be different when we zoom in on individuals and communities. In order to understand individual perspectives and opinions, this year we have opened up an opportunity for Sri Lankans to share their views on Sri Lanka’s Vision to End Poverty. We welcome your views in the form of a short blog post on why you believe #itspossible to end poverty in Sri Lanka. Below are some questions to get you thinking. You need not capture all of them, or be restricted to answering just these questions, but we are interested in hearing from you on these themes. 
  • Do you feel that you have more opportunities than your parents did at your age? Why or why not?
  • How could more openings be created for you and your peers?
  • Do you believe that the future will provide more prospects than the present?
  • What are you most excited about and most discouraged by in terms of available opportunities in Sri Lanka?
  • Do you think it is possible to end poverty in Sri Lanka? As individuals, can we contribute to making this goal a reality?
  • How do you think the reforms listed in Vision 2025 can contribute to ending poverty in Sri Lanka?
How it works:
  • All participants must be registered with us through the online form available here. Follow the submission instructions detailed there.
  • You will be requested to provide a short biography and profile picture which will become your profile, and accessible from the article(s) you write if selected by the panel of editors.

Bicycles can boost Bangladesh's exports

Nadeem Rizwan's picture
Bangladesh is the 2nd largest non-EU exporter of bicycles to the EU and the 8th largest exporter overall
Bicycles are the largest export of Bangladesh’s engineering sector, contributing about 12 percent of engineering exports. Credit: World Bank
This blog is part of a series exploring new sources of competitiveness in Bangladesh

Did you know that Bangladesh is the 2nd largest non-EU exporter of bicycles to the EU and the 8th largest exporter overall?

Bicycles are the largest export of Bangladesh’s engineering sector, contributing about 12 percent of engineering exports.
 
This performance is in large part due to the high anti-dumping duty imposed by the EU against China.
 
Recently, the EU Parliament and the Council agreed on EU Commission’s proposal on a new methodology for calculating anti-dumping on imports from countries with significant market distortions or pervasive state influence on the economy.
 
This decision could mean that the 48.5 percent anti-dumping duty for Chinese bicycles may not end in 2018 as originally intended. China is disputing the EU’s dumping rules at the World Trade Organization.
 
As the global bicycle market is expected to grow to $34.9 billion by 2022, Bangladesh has an opportunity to diversify its exports beyond readymade garments. Presently, Bangladesh is the 2nd largest non-EU exporter of bicycles to the EU and the 8th largest exporter overall.
Bangladesh is the 2nd largest non-EU exporter of bicycles to the EU and the 8th largest exporter overall
EU27 bicycle imports in 2016 (Million $). Bangladesh is the 2nd largest non-EU exporter of bicycles to the EU and the 8th largest exporter overall. Source: UNComtrade through WITS

However, if the EU anti-dumping duty against China is reduced or lifted after 2018, Bangladesh’s price edge might be eroded.
 
Bangladeshi bicycle exporters estimate that without anti-dumping duties, Chinese bicycles could cost at least 10-20 percent less than Bangladeshi bicycles on European markets. And Chinese exporters can ship bicycles to the EU market with 35-50 percent shorter lead times.
 
So, how can Bangladeshi bicycles survive and grow?

Six reasons why Sri Lanka needs to boost its ailing private sector

Tatiana Nenova's picture
 Joe Qian / World Bank
A view of the business district in Colombo. Credit: Joe Qian / World Bank

Sri Lanka experienced strong growth at the end of its 26-year conflict. This was to be expected as post-war reconstruction tends to bring new hope and energy to a country.
 
And Sri Lanka has done well—5 percent growth is nothing to scoff at.  
 
However, Sri Lanka needs to create an environment that fosters private-sector growth and creates more and better jobs. To that end, the country should address these 6 pressing challenges:

1. The easy economic wins are almost exhausted

For a long time, the public-sector has been pouring funds into everything from infrastructure to healthcare. Unfortunately, Sri Lanka’s public sector is facing serious budget constraints. The island’s tax to growth domestic product (GDP) ratio is one of the lowest in the world, falling from 24.2% in 1978 to 10.1% in 2014. Sri Lanka should look for more sustainable sources of growth. As in many other countries, the answer lies with the private sector.
 
2. Sri Lanka has isolated itself from global and regional value chains 

Over the past decades, Sri Lanka has lost its trade competitiveness. As illustrated in the graph below, Sri Lanka outperformed Vietnam in the early 1990s on how much of its trade contributed to its growth domestic product. Vietnam has now overtaken Sri Lanka where trade has been harmed by high tariffs and para-tariffs and trade interventions on agriculture.


Sri Lanka dropped down by 14 notches to the 85th position out of 137 in the recent  Global Competitiveness Index.
           
3. The system inhibits private sector growth

Sri Lanka’s private sector is ailing. Sri Lankan companies are entrepreneurial and the country’s young people are smart, inquisitive, and dynamic. Yet, this does not translate into a vibrant private sector. Instead, public enterprises are the ones carrying the whole weight of development in this country.
 
The question is, why is the private sector not shouldering its burden of growth?


From the chart above, you can see how difficult it is to set up and operate a business in Sri Lanka. From paying taxes to enforcing contracts to registering property, entrepreneurs have the deck stacked against them.
 
Trading across borders is particularly challenging for Sri Lankan businesses. Trade facilitation is inadequate to the point of stunting growth and linkages to regional value chains. The chart explains just why Sri Lanka is considered one of the hardest countries in the world to run a trading business. Compare it to Singapore–you could even import a live tiger there without a problem.

Joining forces to maximize resources for Bhutan’s citizens

Savinay Grover's picture
Public financial management signing
The Multi-Donor fund for Bhutan's Public Financial Management was launched September 21st in Thimphu

Several years ago, a newspaper cartoon in a neighboring country caught everyone’s attention when it depicted the government machinery as a big pipe in which lots of water was being poured from one side as taxpayer’s money and only a drop reached the poor on the other end. The water, representing the funds were being lost due to holes in the pipe. The holes were depicted as inefficiency, wastage, corruption etc. Globally, governments lose trillions of dollars due to various inefficiencies, and lack of proper controls and oversight. Citizens suffer as they do not receive the services that they are promised.

Bhutan provides lots of attention to good governance, which is also one of the pillars of Gross National Happiness. Public Financial Management (PFM) is an important element of good governance and delivering high quality of services to citizens as it’s comprised of budgeting, revenue, procurement, accounting and reporting, internal controls and institutional oversight. Sound PFM systems play an important role in strengthening the efficiency, accountability and transparency of the Government systems. Every dollar, every Ngultrum saved through sound PFM systems mean that more resources are available for better schools, hospitals, roads, and other services.

Bangladesh corridor vital to India’s ‘Act East’ policy

Sanjay Kathuria's picture
India-Bangladesh land border crossing, Photo by Sanjay Kathuria
India-Bangladesh land border crossing. Credit: Sanjay Kathuria

Deepening connectivity and economic linkages between India and Bangladesh will be critical for the success of India’s ‘Act East’ policy.

Here are five priority areas that have the potential to change the economy of Northeast India:

1. Transport Connectivity

After 1947, Northeast (NE) India has had to access the rest of India largely via the “Chicken’s Neck” near Siliguri, greatly increasing travel times. Traders travel 1600 km from Agartala (Tripura) to Kolkata (West Bengal) via Siliguri to access Kolkata port. Instead, they can travel less than 600 kms to reach the same destination via Bangladesh, or even better, travel only 200 km to access the nearby port of Chittagong in Bangladesh.

This is set to change as close cooperation between Bangladesh and India (including various ongoing initiatives such as the transshipment of Indian goods through Bangladesh’s Ashuganj port to Northeast India, expanding of rail links within Northeast India and between the two countries, the BBIN Motor Vehicles Agreement) can dramatically reduce the cost of transport between Northeast India and the rest of India.

The resultant decline in prices of goods and services can have a strong impact on consumer welfare and poverty reduction in the Northeast. Such cooperation also opens up several additional possibilities of linking India with ASEAN via Myanmar.

Moving forward, expanding direct connectivity between NE India and the rest of India via Bangladesh, while giving Bangladesh similar access to Nepal and Bhutan via India, is critical.

2. Digital Connectivity

Broadband connectivity of 10 gbps is now being provided from Bangladesh’s Cox’s Bazar to Tripura and beyond, to help improve the speed and reliability of internet access in NE India. Bangladesh has the capacity to provide more.

په افغانستان کې د ښوونې کړکیچ: آیا په رښتیا هم په دې هېواد کې د پوهنې وضعیت کړکیچن دی؟

Anahita Hosseini Matin's picture
Also available in: English | دری
Anahita Matin/ World Bank
د عبدالهادي داوي د لیسې د زده کوونکو انځور په داسې حال کې چې خپلو درسي خونو ته چمتو والۍ نیسي. انځور د: اناهیتا متین / نړیوال بانک

د کابل ښار په زړه په دریم مکروریان کې د عبدالهادي داوي د هلکانو لیسه کړکیچن وضعیت لري. که څه هم په دې لیسه کې څه باندې ۳۰۰۰ هلکان په زده کړو بوخت دي، خو دا لیسه مناسب تشنابونه نه لري او یوازې په دې لیسه کې یو شمېر ګرځنده کانتینرونه شته، څو زده کونکي د اړتیا پر مهال ورنه ګټه واخلي. همدارنګه دې لیسې ته څيرمه د افغانستان د سترې محکمې ودانۍ ده، چې دا اداره  له امنیتي ګواښونو سره هم مخ ده، له دې ادارې ګاونډیتوب د زده کوونکو ښوونیزو ټولګیو ته زیات ګواښونه رامنځته کړي دي.

د نړیوال بانک د یوې سروي موندنې ښيي، چې د عبدالهادي داوي لیسه له ګڼ شمېر ستونزو لکه د ګټور ښوونیز سیستم له نشتون سره مخ ده. د دې لیسې په ښوونیزو ټولګیو کې د ګټور او اغیزمن ښوونیز سیستم نښې نښانې ډیر لږ لیدل کیږي. سربېره پر دې د دې لیسې د ښوونکو ښوونیزې کړنلارې او تخنیکي وړتیاوې هیڅ ډول نه دي ارزول شوي.

د تنکیو او ځوانانو لپاره د ښوونیزو آسانتیاوو پراختیا د افغانستان دولت له مهمو لومړیتوبونو ګڼل کیږي. له همدې امله، د افغانستان دولت زموږ نه وغوښتل، څو د پوهنې له زده کوونکو څخه د لومړنیو ښوونو له څرنګوالي او همدارنګه هغه ټول خنډونه او ستونزې، چې د با کیفیته ښوونیزې او پوهنیزې آسانتیاوو ته د لاسرسي په موخه ورسره مخ دي، وپیژنو او د هغه راپور چمتو کړو.

په پایله کې موږ وتوانیدو، چې د ۲۰۱۷ زیږدیز کال د اپریل په میاشت کې، د کابل ښار د ۳۲ لیسو او لومړنیو ښوونځيو څخه د سروي او ارزونې بهیر پلي کړو. زموږ د سروي  موندنې د خدمتونو د وړاندې کولو «SABER» په میتود ولاړې دي، چې دا ارزونې میکانیزم د افریقايي هېوادونو کې د خدمتونو وړاندې کولو نوښت له لارې پلي شوي.

زموږ د سروي د موندنو پر بنسټ به یو شمېر برخو کي ځانګړتیاوې رامنځته شي، چې پر بنسټ یې د زدکوونکو لپاره د ښوونیزو آسانتیاوو د پرمختګ څرنګوالی مشخص کیږي او پایله کې د پوهنې پالیسي جوړونکي له دې معلوماتو څخه په ګټې اخیستنې، کولای شي، څو د زده کوونکو او ښوونکو لپاره یو با کیفیته ښوونیز او پوهنیز چاپیریال رامنځته کړي او له دې برخه ډاډ ترلاسه کړي. دا ځانګړتیاوې یو شمېر معیارونه لري، چې پر بنسټ به یې په بیلابیلو سیمو او ښارونو کې د په پرتلیز ډول د زده کوونکو ښوونیزه کچه تحلیل او ارزونه وکړي.
 

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