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Social Development

تاثیرات برنامۀ همبستگی ملی بر زندگی مردم در ولایت کندهار

Abdul Qayum Yousufzai's picture
Also available in: English | پښتو
برنامه همبستگی ملی زندگی میلیونها افغان روستانشین را در سراسر این کشور بهبود بخشیده است.  جاگزین این برنامه، برنامه میثاق شهروندی میباشد، که هدف ان یک پیمان اجتماعی میان حکومت و شوراهای انکشافی محلی است، تا از طریق تقویت این  شورا ها ارایه خدمات اساسی  در عرصه های  زیربنایی و اجتماعی را  به جوامع نیازمند بهبود بخشند.  عکس: شرکت مشورتی رومی/ بانک جهانی
سالهای نه چندان دور، دقیقاً ۱۵ سال پیش، زمانی را به یاد می آورم که مردم در ولسوالی های کندهار برای انتقال محصولات زراعتی شان به مرکز ولایت از حیوانات استفاده می کردند. در آنزمان در کندهار  شاید چند سرک محدود  وجود داشت و تعداد مراکز صحی و مکاتب انگشت شمار بود و در کل بسیاری از زیربناهای مهم در این ولایت در نتیجه حوداث انزمان متاثر گردیده بود . اما بدتر از همه اینکه، وضعیت اقتصادی افغان های که درامد متوسط داشتند‌‌ٰ، نیز چندان خوب نبود و دسترسی مردم به فرصت های درامدرا، و سایر تسهیلات معیشتی بسیار اندک و یا هم اصلاً وجود نداشت.
 
اما از سال ۲۰۰۳ به بعد همه چیز تغییر کرد. درحالیکه بسیاری از پروژه های انکشافی هم اکنون در ولایت کندهار تکمیل گردیده اند، لیکن در میان آنها برنامۀ همبستگی ملی یکی از برنامه های بسیار موفق و شناخته شده با بیشترین تاثیر گذاری بشمار میرود. این برنامه از سال ۲۰۰۳ الی ۲۰۱۶، از مجموعی ۱۷ ولسوالی ولایت کندهار در ۱۶ ولسوالی آن تطبیق گردیده است و به تعداد ۱۹۵۲ شورای انکشافی محلی را ایجاد نموده است که از طریق آن بیشتر از ۳۳۰۰ پروژه تکمیل گردیده است.
 
مردم کندهار در کل  تابع یک سلسله رسوم مشخص میباشند و بطور عموم این ولایت از جمله ولایات بسیار سنتی محسوب میشود. زمانیکه این برنامه در کندهار آغاز به کار نمود، کندهاریان علاقۀ چندان به ایجاد شورا های انکشافی محلی که باید از طریق برگزاری انتخابات در سطح قریه ها ایجاد می شد، نداشتند.

National Solidarity Programme Transformed Scores of Lives in Kandahar Province

Abdul Qayum Yousufzai's picture
Also available in: دری | پښتو
 
The National Solidarity Programme (NSP) improved lives of millions of Afghans across rural Afghanistan. NSP's successor, the Citizens’ Charter Afghanistan Project aims to improve the delivery of core infrastructure and social services to participating communities through strengthened development councils. Photo Credit: Rumi Consultancy/World Bank

Not so long ago, 15 years to be exact, I remember when people in the districts of Kandahar used animals to transport their agricultural harvest to the provincial center. There were a few, if any, motorable roads, and we had a limited number of health centers and schools in the province. Most of the infrastructure laid in ruins. But worst of all, the economic condition of the average Afghan was quite bad with little or no access to income, opportunities, and facilities.
 
Things have changed since 2003. While many development projects have been implemented in Kandahar Province, the National Solidarity Programme (NSP) has been one of the most popular and high impact. Running from 2003 to 2016, NSP was implemented in 16 of 17 districts and set up 1,952 Community Development Councils (CDCs), which implemented over 3,300 projects.
 
In Kandahar, communities are very conservative, and, overall, the province is highly traditional. When the program was launched, people in Kandahar were not interested in establishing CDCs through holding elections at the village level.

Seize the Opportunity to make Dhaka a Great, Vibrant City

Qimiao Fan's picture

The success of Dhaka, one of the megacities of the world, is critically important for the economic and social development of Bangladesh. The city's astonishing growth, from a population of 3 million in 1980 to 18 million  today, represents the promise and dreams of a better life: the hard  work and sacrifices made by all residents to seize  opportunities to lift themselves from poverty towards greater prosperity. 

 
 However, as Dhaka has grown to become one of the most densely populated cities in the world, its expansion has  been messy and uneven. Dhaka's growth has taken place without adequate planning, resulting in a city with extreme  congestion, poor liveability, and vulnerability to floods and earthquakes. Many residents, including the 3.5 million  people living in informal settlements, often lack access to basic services, infrastructure, and amenities. 
 
Unplanned and uncontrolled growth has created unprecedented congestion: the average driving speed has dropped  from 21km per hour 10 years ago to less than 7km per hour today. Continuing on current trends would result in a  further slowdown to 4km an hour — slower than the average walking speed! Congestion eats up 3.2 million working hours each day and costs the economy billions of dollars every year. Some of the most important economic benefits    from urbanisation are missed out due to this messiness, resulting in lower incomes for the city and the country.
 
These problems will not go away on their own. Dhaka's population is expected to double once again by 2035, to 35  million. Without a fundamental re-think requiring substantial planning, coordination, investments, and action, Dhaka  will never be able to deliver its full potential. Dhaka is at a crossroads in defining its future and destiny. 
 
Up to now, urban growth has mainly taken place in the northern part of Dhaka and expanded westward after the  flood of 1988, when the government built the western embankment for flood protection. This resulted in high-density  investments near the city centre, where infrastructure and social services were accessible. However, real estate investments were not coordinated with other infrastructure and transportation services. 

When Afghan refugees come home

Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez's picture
Also available in: دری | پښتو
When it comes to conflict and displacement, we often think about the refugees forced to flee their homes. Equally affected, however, are the ones making their way home after a trying time in exile—the returnees.

In South Asia, Afghanistan is a country experiencing a huge influx of returnees, many from Pakistan and Iran. In 2016 alone, the country welcomed 600,000 returnees. UNHCR predicts another 500,000 to 700,000 returnees by the end of 2017.

On top of that, conflict-driven displacement continues in Afghanistan. In a country of over 30 million people, there is an estimated 1-2 million of displaced population (UN-OCHA, UNHCR, IOM).

One can only imagine how much pressure the displacement crisis is putting on the cities and communities hosting refugees and returnees—starting with the challenge of providing basic services such as water and housing, let alone jobs and security.


In this video, World Bank Senior Director Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez (@Ede_WBG) and Lead Social Development Specialist Janmejay Singh will unpack the challenge and share how innovative community-driven approaches are helping to support returnees in conflict-affected Afghanistan—through Citizens’ Charter Afghanistan Project and other World Bank-supported activities.

زمانیکه مهاجرین افغان به خانه بر می گردند

Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez's picture
Also available in: English | پښتو
زمانیکه در باره موضوعات جنگ و بیجا شدن مردم ناشی از آن صحبت میکنیم، اغلباً در بارۀ انعده مهاجرین که مجبور به فرار از وطن شده اند، فکر می کنیم. این در حالیست که معضله برگشت دوباره مهاجرین به وطن  نیز بطور مساویانه و به همان پیمانه قابل اهمیت است.

 افغانستان یگانه کشوری در حوزه جنوب اسیا است که شاهد بیشترین موج عودت کننده گان از کشورهای پاکستان و یا ایران میباشد. براساس ارقام موجود تنها در سال ۲۰۱۶ میلادی، ۶۰۰۰۰ عودت کننده به افغانستان برگشته اند. طبق پیش بینی های دفتر کمیشنری عالی سازمان ملل متحد برای مهاجرین، الی ختم سال ۲۰۱۷؛ ممکن ۵۰۰۰۰۰ الی ۷۰۰۰۰۰ عودت کننده دیگر نیز به این کشور برخواهند گشت. علاوه بر آن، هنوز هم، مردم مجبور به ترک مناطق مسکونی شان در اثر جنگ و نا امنی ها میشوند. قرارمعلومات دفاتر هماهنگی کمک های بشردوستانه ملل متحد، کمیشنری عالی سازمان ملل متحد برای مهاجرین و سازمان بین المللی مهاجرت از جمله ۳۰ میلیون نفوس افغانستان، یک الی دو میلیون آنان بیجاشده گان داخلی می باشند. 

 حالا تصور کنید که معضل بیجا شدن ناشی از جنگ و ناامنی؛ تا چه اندازه فشار را بالای شهرها و محلاتیکه میزبان عودت کننده گان اند، وارد نموده است - به خصوص از چگونگی فراهم سازی خدمات اولیه همانند آب و مسکن، تا تامین زمینه های اشتغال و مصؤنیت اجتماعی.


در این ویدیو، جان میجی سنگ، متخصص ارشد توسعۀ اجتماعی در مورد چالش ها و اینکه چگونه رویکردهای خلاقانه در سطح محلات از طریق برنامه میثاق شهروندی افغانستان و دیگر فعالیت های که از طریق بانک جهانی غرض رسیده گی به چالشها و فراهم اوری تسهیلات برای عودت کننده گان، فراهم میگردد، بحث و گفتگو نموده است.

کله چې افغان کډوال خپل هېواد ته راستنیږي

Ede Ijjasz-Vasquez's picture
Also available in: English | دری
کله چې د جګړو او د هغو له کبله د خلکو د بېځایه کېدو په اړه خبرې کوو، نو زیاتره وختونه د هغو کډوالو په اړه فکر کوو، چې له خپل هېواد څخه وتلو ته اړ شوي دي. دا په داسې حال کې ده، چې هېواد ته د کډوالو د بیرته راستنیدو ستونزه هم په مساویانه او په همغه اندازه د اهمیت وړ ده.

افغانستان په سویلي اسیا کې یوازینی هېواد دی، چې له پاکستان او ایران څخه د زیات شمېر کډوالو د بیرته راستنیدو شاهد دی. د شته معلوماتو له مخې یوازې په ۲۰۱۶ ز کال کې، ۶۰۰۰۰۰ کډوال بیرته افغانستان ته راستانه شوي دي. د کډوالو په چارو کې د ملګرو ملتونو د عالي کمېشنرۍ د دفتر د معلوماتو له مخې، د ۲۰۱۷ کال تر پایه پورې به ښايې له ۵۰۰۰۰۰ څخه تر ۷۰۰۰۰۰ پورې نور کډوال هم افغانستان ته راستانه شي. سربیره پر دې، لا هم د جګړو او ناکراریو له لاسه خلک د خپلو سیمو پریښودلو ته مجبوريږي. د ملګرو ملتونو د بشر پاله مرستو د همغږۍ د ادارې، د کډوالو په چارو کې د ملګرو ملتونو د عالي کمېشنرۍ د دفتر او د کډوالو د نړیوالې ادارې د معلوماتو له مخې، د افغانستان له ۳۰ میلیون وګړو څخه له یوه نه تر دوو میلیونو پورې یې کورني بېځایه شوي وګړي دي.

اوس فکر وکړئ، چې د جګړو او ناکراریو له لاسه د بېځایه کېدو ستونزو به د بېځایه شویو پر کوربه سیمو او ښارونو باندې څومره فشار راوستی وي - په تیره بیا د لومړنیو خدماتو پر وړاندې کولو باندې لکه اوبه او سرپناه او د اشتغال او ټولنیز خوندیتوب په برخو کې.

 


په دغه ویډیو کې، د ټولنیزې پراختیا لوړپوړي کارپوه، جان میجي سنګ د افغانستان د ولسي تړون د برنامې او هغو نورو فعالیتونو له لارې، چې د نړیوال بانک له خوا تمویلیږي د سیمو پر کچه د راستنیدونکو پر وړاندې د پرتو ننګوونو او ستونزو  د نوښتګرانه حل او مرستې په اړه خبرې کړي دي.


A path toward better health for India’s women

Parvati Singh's picture
 World Bank
In India, Members of a self-help group (SHG) like this one discuss women’s  health issues with female health workers. Credit: World Bank

A little over six years ago, Neelam Kushwaha’s first daughter was born weighing 900 gm at birth, severely underweight. Neelam went into labor while working at the local construction site in Jori village, Rewa, Madhya Pradesh, India. Many people work at such local construction sites in rural areas for daily wages ranging from INR 150-280 (about $2- 4$) per day. Her daughter Manvi, was preterm, and Neelam spent months recovering from child birth complications.

Three years later, when Neelam was pregnant with her younger daughter, Sakshi, she quit wage labor and sought employment at an incense manufacturing unit established by World Bank’s Madhya Pradesh District Poverty Intervention Project (MPDPIP) in 2011. At her new role, she earned more and did not engage in labor intensive work during the final months of her pregnancy. Sakshi was born a healthy 3 kilos.

In the course of my field work supported by South Asia Food and Nutrition Security Initiative (SAFANSI) in 2015, I came across several similar stories.

MPDPIP’s livelihood based approach offered several opportunities towards income supplementation for women self-help groups (SHGs) and rural households through agriculture, dairy/poultry farming and local enterprises, among others.

As evident by Neelam’s experience, MPDPIP’s benefits went beyond income and spilled over into health improvement as well.

I learnt that prior to MPDPIP, childbirth in hospitals was difficult due to prohibitively high costs of travel and hospital stay. Pre-existing government schemes such as the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) offer about INR 1,400 ($20) to rural women who opt for hospital deliveries. However, this payment occurs post-partum, and pre-delivery costs have to be borne upfront by pregnant women.

Post MPDPIP, women were able to opt for hospital deliveries with greater ease due to access to credit from their SHGs. This is particularly relevant for Madhya Pradesh as it has consistently fared poorly with respect to institutional deliveries.

Afghanistan’s energy sector leads the way for gender equality

World Bank Afghanistan's picture
Also available in: دری | پښتو
 Rumi Consultancy/ World Bank
Afghanistan's power utility (DABS) has recently taken steps necessary to ensure that women are involved in all business operations within the organization. Photo: Rumi Consultancy/ World Bank


In Afghanistan, decades of violence, common discriminatory practices, and cultural barriers, including restrictions on mobility, have denied women job opportunities and left them severely underrepresented in all sectors of society.
 
Despite considerable achievements in the last decade, such as the national Constitution guaranteeing equal rights as well as increased enrollment in public schools and universities, achieving gender equality will require widespread social changes.
 
Yet, change is happening and Da Afghanistan Breshna Sherkat (DABS), Afghanistan’s national power utility, is showing the way.
 
With a workforce of about 7,000, the company employs only 218 women, most of whom at a junior support level. However, under the leadership of its new CEO, DABS management has committed to promoting gender equality.
 
The Planning and Capacity Support Project of the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF), managed by the World Bank, is helping DABS deliver on that commitment. The project organized awareness sessions for DABS staff on gender-related issues and provided specialized training to female employees. DABS has committed to providing internships to female university graduates to ensure women can find job opportunities and fully participate in the energy sector.
 
Realizing that the majority of its female staff lacked the confidence to compete with men, DABS is facilitating access to new job opportunities for women employees and has taken steps to ensure that women are involved in all business operations within the organization.

Bangladesh: Building resilience in the eye of the storm (Part 1/3)

Sameh Wahba's picture
 
 Ismail Ferdous/World Bank
Bangladesh, for its geographical location, is in the frontline of the battle against climate change. Credit: Ismail Ferdous/World Bank


This blog is the first of  a series on how Bangladesh has become a leader in coastal resilience.
 
While flying along the coast of Bangladesh earlier this year, I saw from the sky a vast, serene delta landscape, crisscrossed by innumerable rivers and contoured paddy fields.
 
Nonetheless, I was aware that this apparent quietude might well be the calm before a storm.
 
Indeed. the magnitude of threats faced by Bangladesh is unprecedented in terms of risk, exposure and vulnerability. And with a population of 160 million, the country is one of the world’s most disaster prone and vulnerable to tropical cyclones, storm surges, floods, a changing climate and even earthquakes.
 
However, the story of Bangladesh is one of resilience.
 
After the deadly cyclones of 1970 and 1991, which together resulted in the loss of at least half a million lives, the government of Bangladesh instituted disaster risk reduction policies and invested in infrastructure and community-based early warning systems to reduce risks from coastal hazards.
 
Over the years, these investments in cyclone preparedness and flood management helped save lives, reduce economic losses, and protect developmental gains. As a result, the government’s actions are globally cited as being proactive in investing in disaster risk management.
 
The World Bank has been a longstanding partner of the government in investing for resilience.

Local communities combat climate change in Bangladesh

Shilpa Banerji's picture
Mahfuzul Hasan Bhuiyan/World Bank
Bangladesh is among the most vulnerable countries to flooding and climate change impacts. Photo Credit: 
Mahfuzul Hasan Bhuiyan/World Bank

How can a country vulnerable to natural disasters mitigate the effects of climate change? In Bangladesh, resilient communities have shown that by using local solutions it is possible to combat different types of climate change impacting different parts of the country.
 
Every year, flash floods and drought affect the north and north-west regions. Drinking water becomes scarce, land becomes barren and people struggle to find shelter for themselves and their livestock. In the coastal districts, excessive saline makes it impossible to farm and fish.
 
The Community Climate Change Project (CCCP) has awarded grants to around 41 NGOs to address salinity, flood and drought-prone areas. With the help from local NGOs, communities innovated simple solutions to cope up with changing climate and earn a better living benefiting at least 40,000 people in the most vulnerable districts.
 
Raising the plinths of their homes in clusters has helped more than 15,000 families escape floods, and they continued to earn their livelihoods by planting vegetables and rearing goats on raised ground. Vermicomposting has also helped to increase crop yields. In the saline affected areas, many farmers have started to cultivate salinity tolerant crabs with women raising their income level by earning an additional BDT 1500 a month from saline tolerant mud crab culture in high saline areas.
 
Watch how communities use these three solutions to tackle climate change impacts.

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