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I would have to agree with Nachiket Mor that there IS an important role for the private sector to play in providing health care in rural areas. In many areas of India, studies have shown that the private sector is significantly larger than the public sector. For example, a study in Madhya Pradesh (which has a population of about 67 million with about 75% of the population living in rural areas) suggested that more than 75% of all health care providers in that state operate in the private sector. This seems to be fairly representative for India as a whole. In fact, of the 160 programs in the Center for Health Market Innovations' (CHMI) database [], 71 focus exclusively in rural areas while another 64 work in rural areas along with urban and peri-urban areas. Almost all of these program are private or public-private partnerships. So in my opinion, rather than wasting time, energy and money trying to "bully" the private sector out of rural areas, we should take advantage of the fact that they are already so pervasive and create more public-private partnerships. This would then provide opportunities for the government to further regulate the private sector and create more opportunities for unique innovation. Don't underestimate the private sector.