Although Bangladesh has achieved much in the way of poverty reduction and human development, progress has been slower in some urban areas.
Issues such as slow-down of quality job growth, low levels of educational attainment (notably among the youth), and lack of social protection measures have taken the wind out of the proverbial urban reduction “sail.” As the country starts fresh in the new year, it is an opportune time to reflect on some of the key issues affecting urban poverty.
Despite the steady growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP), successive Household Income and Expenditure Surveys (2005 to 2010 and 2010 to 2016) suggest that Given the accelerating rate of urbanization, it suggests that more people live in extreme poverty in 2016 than they did in 2010. With nearly 44% of the country’s population projected to be living in an urban setting by 2050, this issue is only likely to intensify.
Several factors may be driving this trend. Absence of education and skills dampen labor market participation and productivity. Among those who participate in the labor-force in urban areas, 19% of men and 28% of women are illiterate. For those who received at least some training, a recent study shows that only 51% of eighth-grade students met equivalent competency in the native language subject (Bangla). The figures were markedly lower for other subjects. Similar trends carry through to technical diploma and tertiary level institutes. As a result, many prospective employers report reluctance to hiring fresh graduates.
. These Nepali heroes deserve to be read about, known and lauded for their efforts.
The campaign runs every year from 25 November, the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women, to 10 December, Human Rights Day.
The World Bank Group believes that no country, community, or economy can achieve its potential or meet the challenges of the 21st century without equal participation of women and men, girls and boys.
It’s a dusty September morning, and Kiran Devi is finishing her chores at lightning speed.
“Wouldn’t it be nice to keep 5,000 women waiting, especially when it’s a celebration,” she says with a touch of gushing pride and makes her way to the annual general meeting of the women-owned Aaranyak Agri producer company.
Located in Purnea district in Bihar—one of India’s poorest states—the company is made up of small local women small farmers and producers and lies in the most fertile corn regions in eastern India.
But until recently, small farmers did not fully reap the benefits of this productive land.
Local traders and intermediaries dominated the unregulated market. Archaic and unfair trading practices like manual weighing, unscientific quality testing, and irregular payments made it difficult for small farmers to get the best value for their produce.
“The trader would come, put some grains under his teeth and pronounce the quality and pricing. For every quintal of maize [corn], 5-10 kilos additional grains were taken, sometimes through faulty scales and sometimes simply by brazenly asking for it,” says Lal Devi, one member of the company. “We had the choice between getting less or getting nothing.”
Such practices stirred local women farmers into action, and they formed the Aaranyak Agri Producer Company Limited (AAPC) to access markets directly and improve their bargaining power.
The company established a farmer-centric model and received funding and technical assistance through JEEViKA (livelihoods in Hindi), a World Bank program that supports the Government of Bihar and has achieved life-changing results for Bihar’s rural communities.
Joining forces helped lower costs and boost production. Together, the groups saved $120 million and leveraged more than $800 million in bank loans.
Further, digital technologies have been introduced as an innovative way to improve the production, marketing, and sale of small-farmers’ produce.
For example, women farmers receive regular periodic updates on their mobile phones to learn best practices to grow corn as well as weather information to inform farming decisions.
During harvest season, farmers receive daily pricing information from major nearby markets to help them stay abreast of the latest variations in prices.
“Once, it was a rodeo day here and my son asked for money to go. But I didn’t have the money and told him to sell our farm’s bananas on the road instead. So, he took 50 bunches of bananas and sold them all in a few hours. Soon I started a banana business. The sales enabled me to expand my business to packed lunches for truckers. Over time, with the help of my family, the road administration, and my own investments, I started receiving invitations to make meals for college students and travelers.”
Angela, small-holder farmer and entrepreneur, São Paolo, Brazil.
Angela told us her story one afternoon as we ate the delicious lunch she had prepared for us at her rather humble roadside eatery in rural São Paulo, Brazil.
Her story was not only touching but also summed up the importance of entrepreneurial foresight and the power that collaboration holds in opening new doors for poor farming communities.
in Brazil - (although these farmers make up a much smaller proportion of Brazil’s overall farming community and have a different landholding structure).
Even though family farmers represent a small slice of Brazil’s cooperatives, the impact of their collectives is considerable.
The productivity of Brazil’s agriculture is evident.
Yet, farmers’ incomes continue to be subdued.
To help farmers earn more from the land and move onto a higher trajectory of growth, India has gradually shifted its policy focus to linking farmers to markets, as well as enabling them to diversify their production and add value to their produce.
So how do Brazil’s farmer collectives work?
As a women’s rights activist who has dedicated the past six years of her life to empowering women, ensuring that women can access education is crucial to me.
This is what motivates me in my work with the Higher Education Development Program (HEDP) at the Ministry of Higher Education (MoHE), the principal body responsible for providing and regulating higher education in Afghanistan.
When I joined the MoHE as a Gender Specialist in 2016, I mainly focused on making sure female students did not face the same challenges I personally encountered as a student at Kabul University.
, and the few opportunities to go abroad for postgraduate studies. Factors which, together, led to low female enrollment rates.
Today, with support from the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF), many of the challenges I witnessed have been resolved with the initiation of the second National Higher Education Strategic Plan, 2015–2019, under the HEDP.
کار با پروژه انکشاف تحصیلات عالی در چوکات وزارت تحصیلات عالی افغانستان که مسؤلیت اساسی تأمین و تنظیم تحصیلات عالی در کشور را به عهده دارد، برایم انگیزه میدهد.
زمانی که در سال ۲۰۱۶ کار را به حیث متخصص جندر با وزارت تحصیلات عالی شروع کردم، عمدتاً تلاش کردم، تا محصلین اناث با مشکلاتی که خودم در پوهنتون کابل در دوران محصلی روبرو بودم، مواجه نشوند.
پیمودن راه طولانی تا پوهنتون، عدم موجودیت تسهیلات و امکانات رهایشی برای محصلین اناث در محوطۀ پوهنتون، و فرصت های محدودی برای تحصیلات فوق لیسانس در خارج از کشور برخی از مشکلاتی بودند که من و دوستانم از آن زمان به یاد داریم. اینها از جمله عواملی بودند که همه با هم سبب حضور کمرنگ محصلین اناث در نهاد های تحصیلات عالی می شدند.
اکنون، با تطبیق دومین پلان ملی ستراتیژیک تحصیلات عالی برای سال های ۲۰۱۵ – ۲۰۱۹ تحت پروژه انکشاف تحصیلات عالی به حمایت مالی صندوق بازسازی افغانستان، اکثر چالش های که من شاهد آن بودم از میان برداشته شده اند.
دا هغه څه دي چې د افغانستان د لوړو زده کړو وزرات په چوکاټ کې چې په افغانستان کې د لوړو زده کړو د تأمین او تنظیم اساسي دنده ور په غاړه ده، د لوړ زده کړو د پراختیا پروژې سره په کار کولو کې ما ته انګېزه راکوي .
کله چې ما په ۲۰۱۶کال کې د جنډر د متخصصې په توګه د لوړو زده کړو له وزارت سره کار پیل کړ، عمدتاً هڅه مې دا وه چې ښځینه محصلین له هغو ستونزو سره مخ نه شي چې زه پخپله په کابل پوهنتون کې د زده کړې په وخت کې ورسره مخ وم.
تر پوهنتون پورې د اوږدې لارې مزل، په پوهنتون کې د محصلو نجونو له پاره د اوسېدو د امکاناتو نه شتون، او په بهر کې د فوق لیسانس زده کړو د فرصتونو محدودیت، ځینې هغه ستونزې دي چې زما او زما د ملګرو په یاد دي. دا ټول هغه لاملونه وو، چې په پوهنتونونو کې د نجونو د کمرنګه حضور سبب شوي وو.
اوس چې د افغانستان د بیا رغونې صندوق په مالي مرسته، د ۲۰۱۵ – ۲۰۱۹ کلونو په اوږدو کې د لوړو زده کړو د پراختیا پروژې په چوکاټ کې، د لوړو زده کړو دوهم ملي ستراتیژیک پلان تطبیق شوی دی، اکثره هغه ننګونې، چې ما لیدلې وې، له منځه تللې دي.
An ever-growing urban population with overflowing and at times chaotic vehicular traffic can make life difficult even for the most well-abled pedestrian.
The challenges become higher for a person with a disability.
‘How can I go out of my home?’ asks Tajkia Mariam Jahan, a wheelchair user from Dhaka, who was confined to her home for seven years due to the road environment.
The city roads are unwelcoming not only for people in a wheelchair like her but also for persons with all types of disabilities.
Hawa Aktar, a woman with hearing impairment, needs clear, visible signs and signals on road crossings and from vehicles. And Bashir Uddin Molla, a student with visual impairment, needs sounds and guidance when she is walking.
None of these facilities are available to people with disabilities living in Dhaka.
Just look around the world: .
To meet that challenge and be able to compete in the global economy, countries need to prepare their workforces now for the tremendous challenges and opportunities driven by technological change.
To that end, .
The Index will be released on October 11 at the Bank’s Annual Meetings in Bali as part of the Human Capital Project, a global effort led by the Bank to accelerate investments in people for greater equity and economic growth.
No doubt, any country ranking gets high visibility and, sometimes, meets controversy. But I hope it triggers a dialogue about policies to promote investments in people.
To be clear, —or the “frontier”.
The index, irrespective of whether it is high or low, is not an indication of a country’s current policies or initiatives, but rather reflects where it has emerged over years and decades.
The index ranges from 0 to 1 and takes the highest value of 1 only if a child born today can expect to achieve full health (defined as no stunting and survival up to at least age 60) and complete her education potential (defined as 14 years of high-quality school by age 18).
Further to that, rural or urban infrastructure, the commitment levels of teachers, and the nature or extent of corruption in the community can affect how a female student will perform in school.
In general, the past many years of conflict and political unrest in Afghanistan have damaged the country’s education system; eroding the quality of staffing and curriculum.
As a result, the unfavorable political economy has blocked policy reforms and their implementation, taking a toll on the quality of education services.
This has led to weakened governance.