Syndicate content

Public Sector and Governance

More qualified procurement personnel will strengthen Afghanistan’s reform efforts

Anand Kumar Srivastava's picture
Also available in: دری | پښتو
With support from the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund, the Afghan government is taking steps to professionalize procurement and improve capability in ministries and other government institutions.
With support from the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF), the Afghan government is taking steps to professionalize procurement to improve the capability of ministries and other government institutions. Photo Credit: NPA/World Bank

Recruiting the right people for the right jobs is the drive behind the first mass recruitment carried out by the Government of Afghanistan to improve public services. The process is currently underway as part of the government’s civil service and procurement reforms to improve capacity in ministries. Almost 700 highly qualified women and men are expected to be recruited by the end of 2017.

The ongoing recruitment, led by the Independent Administrative Reform and Civil Service Commission (IARCSC), is in tune with the government’s efforts to professionalize procurement and improve capability in ministries and other government institutions.
 
Candidates are undergoing a rigorous selection process, including a mass examination, which saw about 7,800 people take the exam. IARCSC is working closely on this initiative with the National Procurement Authority (NPA), which is providing technical support, and the Ministry of Higher Education, which is facilitating the examination process.

استخدام کارمندان مجرب و متخصص باعث تقویت تلاش ها و گسترش روند اصلاحات در عرصه تدارکات میگردد

Anand Kumar Srivastava's picture
Also available in: English | پښتو
With support from the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund, the Afghan government is taking steps to professionalize procurement and improve capability in ministries and other government institutions.
با حمایت صندوق بازسازی افغانستان، دولت افغانستان اقدامات لازم را بخاطر ارتقای ظرفیت کارمندان تدارکاتی ادارات و وزارتخانه ها رویدست گرفته است. عکس: اداره تداکارت ملی/ بانک جهانی

پروسۀ استخدام اشخاص واجد شرایط به اساس مهارت های مسلکی (تحصیل، تجربه و سایر مشخصات کاری) در عرصه های مختلف محیط کاری به مثابۀ یک اصل عمده در راستای عملی ساختن برنامۀ استخدام کتلوی دولت به منظور ارائۀ خدمات ملکی محسوب میشود. تطبیق این پروسه در حال حاضر به مثابۀ یک بخشی از برنامۀ اصلاحات خدمات ملکی و تدارکات دولتی به منظور تقویت ظرفیت سازی در وزارتخانه ها و ادارات دولتی جریان دارد. توقوع میرود که در نخستین مرحلۀ تطبیق این برنامه، حدود ۷۰۰ تن زنان و مردان واجد شرایط الی ختم سال ۲۰۱۷ میلادی استخدام شوند.

پروسۀ کنونی استخدام، که توسط کمیسیون مستقل اصلاحات اداری و خدمات ملکی، پیش برده میشود، در مطابقت و هماهنگی کامل با تلاش های دولت در راستای استخدام حرفوی و بهبود ارتقای ظرفیت وزارتخانه ها و دیگر ادارات دولتی میباشد.

انتخاب کاندیدان واجد شرایط بخش تدارکات از طریق یک پروسۀ دقیق و شفاف پس از سپری نمودن امتحان جمعی انجام میشود، که در این پروسه ۷۸۰۰ کاندید اشتراک نموده بودند. کمیسیون مستقل اصلاحات اداری و خدمات ملکی به طور همه جانبه خدمات تخنیکی را به منظور تطبیق پروسه استخدام با اداره ملی تدارکات انجام میدهد و همچنان وزارت تحصیلات عالی این اداره را در راستای تسهیل پروسه اخذ امتحان کمک مینماید.

د وړ او متخصصو کارکوونکو استخدام د تدارکاتو په برخه کې د اصلاحاتو د رامنځته کولو او د هڅو د پیاوړتیا لامل ګرځي

Anand Kumar Srivastava's picture
Also available in: English | دری
With support from the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund, the Afghan government is taking steps to professionalize procurement and improve capability in ministries and other government institutions.
د افغانستان د بیا رغونې صندوق په ملاتړ، د افغانستان دولت په پام کې لري، څو په وزارتونو او اړوندو ادارو کې د تدارکاتو په برخه کې د  کارکوونکو د ظرفیت د پياوړي کولو لپاره د اړتیا وړ کړنې ترسره کړي.  انځور: د تدارکاتو ملي اداره/ نړیوال بانک

په بیلابیلو کاري بستونو کې د مسلکي مهارتونو ( زدکړه، تجربه او نور کاري ځانګړتیاوې) پر بنسټ، پر شرایطو برابر کسانو د ګمارنې بهیر د ملکي خدمتونو د وړاندې کولو په موخه د دولت د ډله ییزو ګمارنې پروګرام د پلي کولو لپاره یو مهم اصل ګڼل کیږي. اوسمهال دا بهیر د ملکي خدمتونو او دولتي تدارکاتو د سمون د پروګرام د یوې برخې په توګه، په وزارتونو او دولتي ادارو کې د ظرفیت جوړونې د پیاوړتیا په موخه جریان لري. تمه ده، چې د دې پروګرام د پلي کولو په لومړي پړاو کې، د ۲۰۱۷ کال تر پایه شاوخوا ۷۰۰ ښځې او نارینه، چې پر شرایطو برابر وي، په دندو وګمارل شي.

د ګمارنې اوسنۍ بهیر، چې د اداري اصلاحاتو او ملکي خدمتونو د خپلواک کمیسیون لخوا پر مخ وړل کیږي، په بشپړ ډول د دولت د هغه هڅو، چې د مسلکي ګمارنې په برخه کې یې کړي او د وزارتونو او نورو دولتي ادارو د ظرفیت لوړونې په برخه کې روانې دي؛ همغږي دي او د هغه پر بنسټ په مخ وړل کیږي. د تدارکاتو د برخې لپاره ګمارنه، پر شرایطو برابر کسان د یوې کره او رڼې پروسې له لارې د ډله ییزې ازموینې وروسته ترسره کیږي، چې په دې بهیر کې ۷۸۰۰ تنه کسانو ګډون کړی وو.

 د اداري اصلاحاتو او ملکي خدمتونو خپلواک کمیسیون د ګمارنې د پروسې د پلي کولو په موخه
د تدارکاتو له ملي ادارې سره په هر اړخیز ډول تخنیکي خدمتونه وړاندې کوي او همدارنګه د لوړو زده کړو وزارت له دې ادارې سره د آزموینې د اخیستلو په برخه کې مرسته کوي.

New financial management technologies improve transparency and trust in Afghanistan

Mohammad Zaher Ebadi's picture
Also available in: دری | پښتو
Many government civil servants are now using technology to improve transparency and credibility of government offices in Kandahar Province.
Many government civil servants are now using technology to improve transparency and credibility of government offices in Kandahar Province. Photo credit: Taimani Films/World Bank

The use of technology in Afghanistan’s government offices is not yet the norm. However, in the Directorate of Ministry of Finance (Mostofiat) in Kandahar Province, a province associated more with insecurity than with technology, we have used the power of technology to improve transparency and credibility of government offices. 

Finance is the backbone of any country’s economy. Therefore, it is very important for it to be transparent and credible so that citizens as well as donors feel committed to the development process. With this in mind, we decided to implement the Afghanistan Financial Management Information System (AFMIS) and Standard Integrated Government Tax Administration System (SIGTAS), with the help of the Public Financial Management Reform (PFMR), a project implemented by the Ministry of Finance (MoF) with support from the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF). SIGTAS was also supported through the ARTF Incentive Program.

Since 2007, when we started using AFMIS, we have been able to manage and execute budget-related activities, collect revenue, and pay salaries on time. A computerized system, AFMIS enables multiple users to access financial information and records, whenever and wherever they want. This was not possible with manual records.

بهبود مدیریت مالی واستفاده از تکنالوژی باعث تأمین شفافیت واعتماد سازی در افغانستان گردیده است

Mohammad Zaher Ebadi's picture
Also available in: English | پښتو
Many government civil servants are now using technology to improve transparency and credibility of government offices in Kandahar Province.
اکنون بسیاری از کارکنان مُلکی دولت با استفاده از تکنالوژی قادر به تأمین شفافیت در ارایه خدمات و اعاده اعتماد بالای دفاتر دولتی در ولایت کندهار گردیده اند. تصویر: تایمنی فلم/ بانک جهانی

استفاده از تکنالوژی در شماری زیادی از دفاتر و ادارات دولتی افغانستان هنوز هم به مثابه یک معیار و نورم رایج نگردیده است. با اینحال، مستوفیت ولایت کندهار، که بیشتر به عنوان یک ولایت نا امن محسوب میشود، با این وسایل تجهیز گردیده و در حال حاضر در نتیجهء تسهیلات بوجود آمده  شفافیت و اعتماد بالای خدمات و فعالیت های دفاتر دولتی افزایش یافته است.

مالیات به مثابه بنیاد اقتصاد هر کشور محسوب میشود. روی این ملحوظ تأمین شفافیت در ساختار های مالیاتی نقش کلیدی را در راستای تأمین اعتماد مالیه دهندگان و تمویل کننده گان بین المللی بالای پروسه های انکشافی ایفا میکند. با توجه به اهمیت این موضوع، تصمیم گرفتیم، تا طرح سیستم مدیریت معلومات مالی افغانستان و سیستم اداره واحد مالیات دولتی را در تحت قیادت و رهبری وزارت مالیه به کمک پروژه اصلاحات مدیریت مالی که از سوی صندوق بازسازی افغانستان تمویل میشود، تطبیق نمائیم. قابل یاد آوریست که ایجاد سیستم اداره واحد مالیات دولتی نیز به حمایت پروگرام مشوقه های صندوق بازسازی افغانستان حمایت گردیده است.

از سال ۲۰۰۷ بدینطرف، زمانی که ما قادر به استفاده از سیستم مدیریت معلومات مالی افغانستان گردیدیم، توانستیم، تا تمام فعالیت های مربوط به مدیریت و تطبیق بودجه، جمع آوری مالیات و پرداخت معاشات را مطابق زمان بندی دقیق آن اجرا نمایم. سیستم مجهز کمپیوتری در سیستم مدیریت معلومات مالی افغانستان زمینه دسترسی کاربران متعدد را به گونه گسترده به معلومات مالی و ثبت در هر محل و هر زمان میسر میسازد. این درحالیست که دسترسی به این اطلاعات در سیستم های ثبت معلومات در اوراق ژورنال ها به گونه سنتی ممکن نبود.

د افغانستان په مالي مدیریت کې ښه والی او له تکنالوژۍ څخه ګټه اخیستنه په چارو کې د ړونتیا او د باور جوړونې لامل ګرځیدلې

Mohammad Zaher Ebadi's picture
Also available in: English | دری
Many government civil servants are now using technology to improve transparency and credibility of government offices in Kandahar Province.
اوس مهال د دولت ډیری شمیر مُلکی کارکوونکي له تکنالوژۍ څخه په ګټه اخیستنې سره د خدمتونو په وړاندې کولو کې د ړونتیا د تامین او پر دولتي دفترونو د خلکو د ډاډ او باور په بیا ترلاسه کولو باندې توانیدلي دي. انځور: تایمنی فلم/ نړیوال بانک

د دولت په یو زیات شمیر دفترونو کې له تکنالوژۍ څخه ګټه اخیستنه اوس هم د یو معمول معیار او نورم په توګه نده ترویج شوی. خو په ورته مهال، د کندهار ولایت مستوفیت چې تر ډیره د یو نا امن ولایت په توګه یادیږي، په دغو وسایلو تجهیز شوی او اوسمهال د رامینځته شویو آسانتیاوو په پایله کې ړونتیا او د دولتي دفترونو پر خدماتو د باور کولو لړی یی پیاوړې کړې ده.

مالیه د هر هیواد د اقتصاد بنسټ بلل کیږي. له همدې کبله په مالي بنسټونو او ادارو کې د ړونیا تامین په پراختیايي چارو باندې د مالیه ورکوونکو او نړیوالو تمویل کوونکو لپاره د باور او ډاډ  په رامینځته کولو کې مهمه ونډه په غاړه لري. د دغې موضوع مهم والي ته په کتلو سره، موږ تصمیم ونیوه، چې افغانستان د مالي معلوماتو د مدیریت سیستم او د دولتي مالیاتو د واحده ادارې سیستم د مالیې وزارت تر مشري لاندې د مالي مدیریت د اصلاحاتو پروژې په ملاتړ، چې د افغانستان د بیارغونې صندوق لخوا تمویلیږي، رامینځته او تطبیق کړو. د یادولو وړ ده، چې د دولتي مالیاتو د واحده ادارې سیستم د افغانستان د بیارغونې صندوق د مشوقو پروګرام په ملاتړ تمویل شوی.

له ۲۰۰۷ زیږدیز کال راپدیخوا، کله چې موږ د افغانستان د مالي معلوماتو مدیریت له سیستم څخه په ګټه پورته کولو بریالي شولو، نو په دې وتوانیدلو، ترڅو د بودجې د مدیریت او تطبیق چارې، د مالیاتو راټولول او د تنخواوو ورکړه په ټاکل شوي وخت سره پلې کړو. د افغانستان د مالي معلوماتو مدیریت سیستم کې د مجهزو کمپیوتري آسانتیاوو له امله په یو وخت کې بیلابیل کسان په پراخه کچه کولی شي، چې مالي معلوماتو ته لاسرسۍ او د هغو ثبت په هر ځای کی او هر وخت کې پلي کړي. دا په داسې حال کې ده، چې د معلوماتو د پخواني ثبت سیستم له مخې چې په دودیزډول به په ژورنالونو کې لیکل کیدل، خورا ستونزمن و.

The Legacy of Saman Kelegama

Sanjay Kathuria's picture
Saman Kelegama, a Sri Lankan economist and the Executive Director of the Institute of Policy Studies (IPS Sri Lanka) died prematurely in June 2017. He was a champion of deeper South Asian cooperation.
Saman Kelegama, a Sri Lankan economist and the Executive Director of the Institute of Policy Studies (IPS Sri Lanka) died prematurely in June 2017. He was a champion of deeper South Asian cooperation. Credit:  Institute of Policy Studies

I first met Saman in the early 1990s in Delhi.  Over the years, our paths diverged.  When I re-engaged on South Asia, I ran into Saman again. We re-connected instantly, despite the long intervening period.  This was easy to do with Saman—soft-spoken, affable, a gentleman to the core.  He bore his considerable knowledge lightly.  

Despite his premature passing away in June 2017, he left a rich and varied legacy behind him. I will confine myself to discussing his insights on regional cooperation in South Asia, based on his public writings and my interactions with him.

Saman was a champion of deeper economic linkages within South Asia. He was also pragmatic. 

Along with a few other regional champions, Saman, as the head of the Institute of Policy Studies in Colombo, helped to kick-start the “South Asian Economic Summit”, or SAES, in Colombo in 2008, to provide a high-profile forum for dialogue on topical issues, especially South Asian regional integration. It is remarkable that the SAES has endured, without any gap. The fact that the policy and academic fraternity meet with unfailing regularity, despite on-and-off political tensions in the region, is testimony to its value.

Saman repeatedly stressed that Sri Lanka has been able to reap benefits from the India-Sri Lanka FTA (ISFTA), contrary to the general belief. His arguments were powerful: the import-export ratio for Sri Lanka improved from 10.3 in 2000 (the start of the ISFTA) to 6.6 in 2015; about 70 percent of Sri Lanka’s exports to India get duty-free access under the FTA, but less than 10 percent of Sri Lanka’s imports from India come under the FTA (since India provided “special and differential treatment” to Sri Lanka).

Share your views on Sri Lanka’s Vision to End Poverty: The Road to 2025

Mariam Yousef's picture


October 17, 2017
– Today marks the 25th anniversary of the United National declaration of the International Day to End Extreme Poverty. Compared to many other countries in the world, Sri Lanka has done well in ending extreme poverty. Between 2002 and 2012, extreme poverty in Sri Lanka decreased from 8.3% to 1.9% while the national poverty level fell from 22% to 6.7% during the same period. Read the latest poverty brief and the two-part series on understanding poverty in Sri Lanka to learn more.

The big picture of poverty in Sri Lanka may be different when we zoom in on individuals and communities. In order to understand individual perspectives and opinions, this year we have opened up an opportunity for Sri Lankans to share their views on Sri Lanka’s Vision to End Poverty. We welcome your views in the form of a short blog post on why you believe #itspossible to end poverty in Sri Lanka. Below are some questions to get you thinking. You need not capture all of them, or be restricted to answering just these questions, but we are interested in hearing from you on these themes. 
  • Do you feel that you have more opportunities than your parents did at your age? Why or why not?
  • How could more openings be created for you and your peers?
  • Do you believe that the future will provide more prospects than the present?
  • What are you most excited about and most discouraged by in terms of available opportunities in Sri Lanka?
  • Do you think it is possible to end poverty in Sri Lanka? As individuals, can we contribute to making this goal a reality?
  • How do you think the reforms listed in Vision 2025 can contribute to ending poverty in Sri Lanka?
How it works:
  • All participants must be registered with us through the online form available here. Follow the submission instructions detailed there.
  • You will be requested to provide a short biography and profile picture which will become your profile, and accessible from the article(s) you write if selected by the panel of editors.

Bicycles can boost Bangladesh's exports

Nadeem Rizwan's picture
Bangladesh is the 2nd largest non-EU exporter of bicycles to the EU and the 8th largest exporter overall
Bicycles are the largest export of Bangladesh’s engineering sector, contributing about 12 percent of engineering exports. Credit: World Bank
This blog is part of a series exploring new sources of competitiveness in Bangladesh

Did you know that Bangladesh is the 2nd largest non-EU exporter of bicycles to the EU and the 8th largest exporter overall?

Bicycles are the largest export of Bangladesh’s engineering sector, contributing about 12 percent of engineering exports.
 
This performance is in large part due to the high anti-dumping duty imposed by the EU against China.
 
Recently, the EU Parliament and the Council agreed on EU Commission’s proposal on a new methodology for calculating anti-dumping on imports from countries with significant market distortions or pervasive state influence on the economy.
 
This decision could mean that the 48.5 percent anti-dumping duty for Chinese bicycles may not end in 2018 as originally intended. China is disputing the EU’s dumping rules at the World Trade Organization.
 
As the global bicycle market is expected to grow to $34.9 billion by 2022, Bangladesh has an opportunity to diversify its exports beyond readymade garments. Presently, Bangladesh is the 2nd largest non-EU exporter of bicycles to the EU and the 8th largest exporter overall.
Bangladesh is the 2nd largest non-EU exporter of bicycles to the EU and the 8th largest exporter overall
EU27 bicycle imports in 2016 (Million $). Bangladesh is the 2nd largest non-EU exporter of bicycles to the EU and the 8th largest exporter overall. Source: UNComtrade through WITS

However, if the EU anti-dumping duty against China is reduced or lifted after 2018, Bangladesh’s price edge might be eroded.
 
Bangladeshi bicycle exporters estimate that without anti-dumping duties, Chinese bicycles could cost at least 10-20 percent less than Bangladeshi bicycles on European markets. And Chinese exporters can ship bicycles to the EU market with 35-50 percent shorter lead times.
 
So, how can Bangladeshi bicycles survive and grow?

Six reasons why Sri Lanka needs to boost its ailing private sector

Tatiana Nenova's picture
 Joe Qian / World Bank
A view of the business district in Colombo. Credit: Joe Qian / World Bank

Sri Lanka experienced strong growth at the end of its 26-year conflict. This was to be expected as post-war reconstruction tends to bring new hope and energy to a country.
 
And Sri Lanka has done well—5 percent growth is nothing to scoff at.  
 
However, Sri Lanka needs to create an environment that fosters private-sector growth and creates more and better jobs. To that end, the country should address these 6 pressing challenges:

1. The easy economic wins are almost exhausted

For a long time, the public-sector has been pouring funds into everything from infrastructure to healthcare. Unfortunately, Sri Lanka’s public sector is facing serious budget constraints. The island’s tax to growth domestic product (GDP) ratio is one of the lowest in the world, falling from 24.2% in 1978 to 10.1% in 2014. Sri Lanka should look for more sustainable sources of growth. As in many other countries, the answer lies with the private sector.
 
2. Sri Lanka has isolated itself from global and regional value chains 

Over the past decades, Sri Lanka has lost its trade competitiveness. As illustrated in the graph below, Sri Lanka outperformed Vietnam in the early 1990s on how much of its trade contributed to its growth domestic product. Vietnam has now overtaken Sri Lanka where trade has been harmed by high tariffs and para-tariffs and trade interventions on agriculture.


Sri Lanka dropped down by 14 notches to the 85th position out of 137 in the recent  Global Competitiveness Index.
           
3. The system inhibits private sector growth

Sri Lanka’s private sector is ailing. Sri Lankan companies are entrepreneurial and the country’s young people are smart, inquisitive, and dynamic. Yet, this does not translate into a vibrant private sector. Instead, public enterprises are the ones carrying the whole weight of development in this country.
 
The question is, why is the private sector not shouldering its burden of growth?


From the chart above, you can see how difficult it is to set up and operate a business in Sri Lanka. From paying taxes to enforcing contracts to registering property, entrepreneurs have the deck stacked against them.
 
Trading across borders is particularly challenging for Sri Lankan businesses. Trade facilitation is inadequate to the point of stunting growth and linkages to regional value chains. The chart explains just why Sri Lanka is considered one of the hardest countries in the world to run a trading business. Compare it to Singapore–you could even import a live tiger there without a problem.

Pages