The indicators given with respect to job creation are encouraging. Cash transfers are necessary under Kazakhstan's circumstances and will continue to impact the lives of the vulnerable (the unskilled, old pensioners, single mothers, etc.). After all, similar cash transfer schemes have proven to be effective in rural Zambia, according to post-evaluation reports on African Development (AfDB) projects.
First, these schemes are particularly effective in that administrative red-tape associated with making finances available to the poor are avoided. Effective mechanisms, including trustworthy field workers, means of verification that targeted beneficiaries actually receive the cash, should be put in place. Such schemes should be promoted especially where countries affected score satisfactorily on good governance and transparency indices.
Second, in order that the schemes are successful, from a macro-economic perspective, a multi-sectoral approach by which other sectors of the economy (social including health an education & training in addition to agriculture, banking, infrastructure & industry, etc.) are actively leveraged is called for.
Third, programmes a and projects in the social sectors in particular (health, education, gender-focused interventions, rural banking schemes such as credit unions and various forms of savings schemes, etc,) should be streamlined to respond more effectively to the needs of the poor.
Socio-economic upward mobility would also be an important consideration in the medium- and long terms, since poverty could actually become pervasive if no visible structures are put in place to significantly upgrade living conditions and promote higher standards of living. Government would have to come up with relevant income-distribution policies leveraged by a strong will and commitment to ensuring equity in resource distribution (road networks, water and sanitation facilities, preschool arrangements for the poor, school feeding programmes to increase access, especially to the lower levels of the education system (pre-primary and primary).
Fourth, working out specific cooperatives linked to diverse economic activities (including small-holder farming, fisheries, cottage industry, etc.) may go a long way to strengthen cash transfer schemes and make a greater impact on the economy.