Thanks so much for your response. One quick point of clarification in reference to a line from your post ("But giving it to the community enabled the community to monitor whether people were using the toilets."). I'm curious how the community monitors toilet usage.
Related to this, it seems like upkeep of toilets (whether within the home or for community toilets) is a big issue. The conditions of toilets in villages (particularly communal ones) are such that open defecation often seems like a better alternative, regardless of what the broader externalitites may be. I imagine factors like caste also play into this as cleaning and caring for the toilet would almost certainly not be done by men, and probably not by the women of the household either.
Could government be brought in to help fund the upkeep of toilets?