Shaheena, thanks for your question and comments. I fully agree that the solution has to be holistic and integrated, and that we should strengthen the role of development partners, including the government. But the problem is that sometimes the government is not being effective (as you suggest) because of misaligned incentives within government: service providers don't have an incentive to provide services (teachers and doctors are absent), or politicians don't have an incentive to allocate resources to poor people (because of elite capture of the political system). In this setting, the holistic and integrated approach involves empowering poor people to better hold governments and service providers accountable. This is how we can make governments more effective at serving the poor.