The question you have put forward and the issues you have raised are of paramount importance in the domain of anti-corruption. Corruption can first and foremost be tackled proactively (through prevention). it is often said that "prevention is better than cure" or in other words "a pound of cure is worth an ounce of prevention" this simple means that safeguards can be put in place to prevent corruption at both the macro and micro levels by introducing ethos of transparency, accountability and efficiency in administrative and financial management. on the other hand where prevention fails us simply because of the presence of cunning people who can bend the rules in our organizations, we turn to reactive measures that require detection, investigation and prosecution. this is a scientific approach in the fight against corruption and the tendency is for this approach to replace the unpopular traditional approach that lays emphasis on punishment alone. the UNODC has through an effective anti-corruption instruments brought out in details the scientific approach through the UNCAC and this provides the basis for which member countries to the Convention can eradicate corruption in their various countries. Please I refer us to the United Nations Convention Against Corruption for more details.