Thanks very much for your comments and interest in this work.I am indeed aware of the research by Lily Tsai (I was also a discussant for her presentation in one of her visits to the Bank). It's always useful, however, to have another perspective on how to interpret it. Thanks! One of the big messages I took away from it was the great variation in public services across local jurisdictions even in a context of very centralized and tightly controlled institutions. Endogenous and historical variation across local jurisdictions in local institutions seem to account for a lot of disparity in experience with public services. In the accountability "interventions" of the Bank's governance work it would be useful to examine both what we can learn from such endogenous institutions, and how the local variation might be used to facilitate greater demonstration effects (spillovers, yardstick competition)of "well performing" areas on the "lagging" ones.