Marshall McLuhan suggested that radio is a hot media and so has different effects. He saw radio as a technology that best centralizes that enables totalitarianism. So, the notion of radio as a mechanism for citizens to hold government accountable is an interesting counterpoint. Perhaps the differences in effects among countries is reflected by the extent to which government has control over radio vs. community radio vs. strong interests like opposition party control over radio vs. the aggregate effect of all of the other media. The recent events in Tunisia and Egypt seems to show that social media is a more effective mechanism for citizen efficacy and influence than radio or television. For example, the regimes resorted to traditional media.