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The Commonwealth Secretary-General has said that, "Leadership is the lifeblood of good governance." It is estimated that more than 100,000 public servants across the Commonwealth need some form of leadership development. The basic case is made in the Commonwealth Secretariat's remarks above on this critical 'missing link' in the WB's approach to PSM. Heads of national training institutes in the Commonwealth reaffirm the primacy of leadership development in strengthening governance and public administration in their countries. They acknowledge that weak institutions and limited resources severely constrain government capacity to reduce poverty and achieve the MDGs. Forty-one stakeholders meeting this May in Nairobi agreed that creative strategies and cost-effective initiatives are critical in promoting Leadership for Development. Training institutes from 18 Commonwealth countries discussed ways to collaborate. The challenge of developing and sustaining effective leadership capabilities is formidable. Learning programmes have to be customised to country context and circumstances because effective leadership is inseparable from cultural norms. While leadership programmes for senior executives are resource intensive, they offer high return on investment. More capacity building is needed to develop effective leaders. Leaders at the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in Australia in October will consider three resolutions: 1. To reaffirm support for the role of leadership development in strengthening the capacity of member countries to deliver public policy, reform, and services 2. To endorse active collaboration among member countries and the international development community to strengthen leadership capacity 3. To prioritise collaborative strategies that build the capacity of training institutes, that develop the competencies required of leaders, and that facilitate governance, management, and funding of the leadership development community. The proposed Commonwealth Leadership for Development Initiative responds to members’ and stakeholders’ priorities for action. An annual forum is envisaged to build a community of practice and to facilitate networking and exchanges. Leadership programmes to develop the competencies of senior executives, as well as workshops, toolkits, case studies, and research to expose training professionals to advanced learning methodologies, programme design, and impact assessment, are also in the works. A guiding coalition is steering business planning and community development. The message from the Vice-President of Kenya at the close of a recent CAPAM conference endorsed the need to train leaders to inspire excellence in public service and to fulfil national development goals. Plans for cross-cultural leadership development were commended as a 'finishing school' for senior public executives. The importance of leadership development is underscored in state building at the centre of government. Leaders of central institutions like Auditors-General, CIOs, Anti-corruption Commissioners, Procurement Officers, and Public Service Commissioners are critical to integrity, innovation, accountability, and capacity development across government. They are instrumental in massaging the political-administrative interface that advances the WB's and Commonwealth's good work in PSM reform.