The ILO has carried out an audit of 14 selected PRSPs in Asia, Africa and Latin America to find out whether indigenous and tribal people have participated in the PRSP process and whether their interests have been taken into account.
Indigenous and tribal peoples represent about 5 per cent of the world’s population, but over 15 per cent of the world’s poor. The incidence of extreme poverty is higher among them than among other social groups and, generally, they benefit much less than others from overall declines in poverty.
The 14 countries are: Bangladesh, Bolivia, Cambodia, Guyana, Honduras, Kenya, Lao PRD, Nepal, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Viet Nam and Zambia. The main findings of the report include:
- there are significant differences between and within regions and between countries, in terms of whether and how indigenous and tribal questions are addressed.
- there is a lack of indigenous-specific indicators in most developing countries
- the nature of many PRSPs reflect an understanding of poverty primarily in terms of material deprivation, and as a state rather than in terms of powerlessness and vulnerability linked to systemic discrimination
- with a few Latin American exceptions, indigenous and tribal peoples have not been involved in consultations leading to the formulation of the PRSPs
- a few PRSPs recognise that indigenous or tribal peoples' disadvantages have a strong political dimension and are linked to their inadequate political representation within government
- only a few PRSPs examine the gender dimensions of indigenous or tribal poverty - gender aspects are generally addressed separately from the status and needs of indigenous and tribal men and women
- only a couple of PRSPs mainstream indigenous and tribal issues and address them consistently throughout.