At the World Bank Group (WBG)-International Monetary Fund Annual Meetings earlier this month in Bali, Indonesia, WBG President Dr. Jim Kim posed a critical question: “What will it take to promote economic growth and help lift people out of poverty everywhere in the world…How will they reach their ambitions in an increasingly complex world?”
East Asia and Pacific
Accumulated scientific evidence shows that proper nutrition and stimulation in utero and during early childhood benefit physical and mental well-being later in life and contribute to the development of children’s cognitive and socioemotional skills. Yet, a critical but often overlooked fact in policy design and program development across the world is the association between maternal depression and childhood stunting -- the impaired growth and development measured by low height-for-age.
The East Asia and Pacific region is vital to global pandemic preparedness. The region has been the epicenter of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. China and Southeast Asia alone accounted for approximately 90 percent of SARS cases and two-thirds of the human cases of avian influenza in the world. These outbreaks are driven by several socio-economic, demographic, environmental, and ecological factors, including close contact between humans and animals, encroachment with wildlife, high population density, rapid urbanization, high growth rates, and climate change.
While the last half century has seen major advances in global health, new challenges are now threatening these hard-won health gains. One of these is antimicrobial resistance (AMR), or drug-resistant infections which can no longer be treated by antibiotics and other antimicrobial drugs. AMR is on the increase globally both in humans and animals.
La adopción de los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) durante las reuniones de la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas celebradas recientemente fue una noticia digna de festejo: el futuro al que aspiramos ahora incluye oficialmente la cobertura sanitaria universal, tal como se define en el ODS 3, meta 8. (i) Esa misma semana, también nos enteramos de que un grupo de economistas de 44 países había manifestado públicamente (i) que “la cobertura de salud universal tiene sentido desde el punto de vista económico”. Según parece, la marea ha cambiado en favor de brindar atención médica esencial a todo aquel que la necesita, sin generar dificultades financieras.
L’adoption des Objectifs de développement durable (ODD) lors de la récente assemblée générale des Nations Unies a apporté une excellente nouvelle : désormais, l’avenir que nous voulons inclut, entre autres, la couverture santé universelle, telle que définie par l’ODD n° 3, cible 8. La même semaine, un groupe d’économistes venant de 44 pays a déclaré publiquement (a) que la couverture santé universelle était « économiquement justifiée ». Il semble donc qu’un changement de cap s’opère pour permettre à tous ceux qui en ont besoin d’accéder à des soins de santé sans rencontrer de difficultés financières.
The launch of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at the recent U.N. General Assembly meetings brought especially welcome news: The future we want now officially includes universal health coverage (UHC), as defined under SDG 3, target 8. We also heard, the same week, from a group of economists from 44 countries, who publicly stated that “UHC makes economic sense.” It seems the tide has turned toward making essential health care available to all who need it, without creating financial hardship.
For the first time in history, more than half the human population lives in cities, and the vast majority of these people are poor. In Africa and Asia, the urban population is expected to increase between 30-50% between 2000 and 2020. This shift has led to a range of new public health problems, among them road traffic safety. Road crashes are the number 1 killer among those aged 15-29, and the 8th leading cause of death worldwide. The deadly impact from accidents is aggravated by pollution from vehicles, which now contributes to six of the top 10 causes of death globally.
Tobacco kills one-third to one-half of all people who use it, on average 15 years prematurely. The World Health Organization (WHO) has a target of a 30% reduction in smokers by 2025; but this is one target that would be great to exceed. Alcohol-attributable cancer, liver cirrhosis, and injury caused 1.5 million deaths globally in 2010.
Recently, the representatives of ministries of finance and ministries of health, as well as a host of civil society organizations and international organizations, met in Manila to consider lessons to be drawn from the international experience surrounding so-called sin taxes.