There is NO evidence whatsoever that circumcising babies has ANY effect on HIV. The (non-double-blinded, non-placebo controlled) trials were all conducted on paid adult volunteers for circumcision, in a context of intense counselling and provision of condoms. If, for example, the experience of being circumcised focussed the minds of the men on the other measures, that would explain the difference in HIV they found as readily as circumcision itself. In 10 out of 18 countries for which USAID has figures, more of the circumcised men have HIV than the non-circumcised. This needs to be explained before blundering on with mass circumcision campaigns - let alone cutting the genitals of babies, where it can certainly not have any of those indirect effects.