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Thanks Katherine for your comments. Indeed, as you highlight, a whole-of-society approach is needed to prevent, detect and confront the onset of infectious diseases outbreaks which are inevitable. This, as in disaster preparedness, requires, as you suggest, ex-ante institutional measures and coordination arrangements supported by "confidence-building activities among the various health and environment actors at all levels" to "anticipate problems and enable fruitful collaboration when emergencies do occur."

Also, your point about the availability of safe water and basic sanitation services in health facilities is critical for effective outbreak management. But I would add that availability of these systems need to be complemented by efforts to promote the utilization of sanitation services and adoption of basic hygiene practices. This would help to modify risky behaviors such as open defecation or adopt hygine practices such as washing hands before and after seeing a patient.