At a recent lunchtime presentation, World Bank staff had the opportunity to hear about the progress of the Government of India’s Aadhaar program. Aadhaar, which means ‘foundation’ in English, is a 12 digit individual identification number issued to each resident in India by the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI). The program aims to provide a unique ID to 1.2 billion residents and is, as such, the largest ID project of its kind currently in the world. Beyond registration of citizens, it will allow identifying and finding citizens who qualify for social benefits and social protection services but have been excluded until now for a variety of reasons including lack of documentation, cast system and gender. Aadhaar is seen by many as one of key means to enable social and financial inclusion in India.