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I think it is still pretty hard to "prove" that economic theories directly led to policy changes that greatly improved human welfare in many countries over the past 20 years. One can come up with case studies and examples, and perhaps think of specific types of policies (e.g. monetary policy) where the links are a bit stronger. But 1) we know how hard it is to measure anything causal at the macro level; and 2) it is not enough to point to a couple of case studies and argue that "good" vs "bad" policies were the cause, without considering other countries which tried to implement the same polices and didn't have the same success.

But I think it is also clear that thinking about the links from evidence to policy change is something that it would be great to see much more research about. We know from debates on topics like immigration or trade that even when there is some agreement about a range of evidence, tracing linkages from this to particular policy decisions is very very hard.