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Submitted by Paul on

Correct: "there is no such thing as a control group--there are only alternative treatment groups." Since social science cannot replicate 2 single-celled organisms with genetic identity where one receives a singular input in a controlled medical lab environment, it must also be said: "there is no counterfactual, in fact." There are only counter-estimations. So mixed methods (contribution analysis + predictions + dose-response + difference in differences + comparative case studies) and discernment are essential.