The barriers that small firms face in joining the formal economy are well-documented. In countries where local governments provide little in return, it seems like the ethical issues in this sort of study run deeper. While the possibility that an intervention may hurt study participants is always present in an RCT, it seems especially pertinent when informed consent is not possible and the firms in question would rather not be part of the treatment group. How do you handle these sorts of ethical issues? How did the IRB approval process work?