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Sustainable Communities

Promoting digital jobs in Pakistan

Sonia Madhvani's picture

Over the next several decades, Pakistan is poised to become the fourth most populous country in the world. With nearly 53 million active youth (under 25) and a high youth unemployment rate, the challenges of inclusion and empowerment of these young people will continue to grow. Gender disparities also persist with Pakistan having one of the lowest female labor force participation rates in the South Asia region. 

Boosting access to opportunities by connecting cities

Sonia Madhvani's picture

Connected cities use urban infrastructure and transportation networks to boost access to economic opportunities and job creation. In Port-Au-Prince, Haiti, a project recently analyzed the flows of people within the city’s network using cell phone data.  The study identified the most critical links in the urban transportation system that can connect people to jobs and businesses to markets. The project won the World Bank Group’s Fiscal Year 2018 Presidents Award for Excellence for using disruptive technology to collect data.

Creating opportunities for young women through youth employment programs

Jose Manuel Romero's picture
Innovative programs can respond to gender disparities in youth employment. Photo: Dominic Chavez/ World Bank. 

The disadvantages young women face in the labor market and in entrepreneurship in developing countries are not only substantial and complex, but they quickly compound. A plethora of forces drive gender disparities in youth employment: lack of opportunities to develop the skills demanded by the labor market, family or social pressure dissuading them from entering desirable jobs or male-dominated sectors, a detrimental work environment, or a lack of available services such as childcare might make achieving success an uphill battle. Yet innovative youth employment programs can respond to gender issues. Below are three examples presented in a recent virtual workshop held by the Solutions for Youth Employment (S4YE) coalition with members of its Impact Portfolio community.

Secondary towns for migration and jobs: The first move is different

Luc Christiaensen's picture
The key to breaking the vicious circle is the first move. This is the first, often bold step into the unknown. It comes with the realization that things need to be shaken up to overturn the seemingly inalterable conditions that keep people confined to the village. (Photo: Hendri Lombard / World Bank)


For a young person who has spent his or her whole life living in a village in rural Africa, moving out is often desirable in theory, but daunting in practice. From the life histories of migrants in Tanzania it becomes clear that a number of important resources are needed, which are typically scarce in supply, particularly within the village. These include, among others, cash to pay the bus fare and a familiar face at destination, professional skills to find meaningful employment, and the life skills to operate in the anonymous, cash-based urban environment. And just because of the particular challenge of getting these in the village, the first move becomes so special.

Secondary towns for migration and jobs: Creating the action space

Luc Christiaensen's picture
These are some of the insights emerging from the in-depth conversations with 75 migrants from rural Kagera, Tanzania which are recounted here in a 3-blog series. This first blog focuses on the importance of “Making action space”. (Photo: Hendri Lombard / World Bank)


Raymond is a young boy living in rural Kagera, Tanzania. He has always dreamed of moving to Dar es Salaam, Tanzania’s prime city, 1,650 km away and currently with a population of 4.5 million. Getting there, for someone with his background and skills, was next to impossible. But, having familiarized himself with the wheeling and dealing of urban life through his moves through several secondary towns in Tanzania, he is getting closer. Over the past few years, he moved 8 times, expanding and contracting his action space with each move.

The story of Raymond challenges the traditional vision of rural to urban migration as a one-step process. It further draws attention to the opportunity that secondary towns can add for improving people’s welfare through migration. These are some of the insights emerging from the in-depth conversations with 75 migrants from rural Kagera, Tanzania which are recounted here in a 3-blog series. This first blog focuses on the importance of “Making action space”.

International Youth Day: New innovations and learning on youth employment

Namita Datta's picture
Youth are at the heart of migration. Between 2010 and 2015, the estimated net inflow of young people of working age population was 14.8 million. (Photo: Dominic Chavez / World Bank)


Tomorrow is International Youth Day!  

This year, we have reasons to celebrate. Globally, more and more young people are receiving an education and women are making some progress in key indicators like life expectancy and economic engagement outside the home. But there persist urgent reasons to double down on efforts to engage the global youth population in productive work: 

  • The global youth unemployment rate is on the rise after several years of improvement. Youth account for roughly 40% of the world’s unemployed, 3x more likely to be unemployed than adults. 

  • 1 in 4 young people in the world cannot find jobs paying more than $1.25 per day, the international threshold of extreme poverty

  • Youth are at the heart of migration. Between 2010 and 2015, the estimated net inflow of young people of working age population was 14.8 million.   

Women’s jobs at risk from tech disruption

Samantha Amerasinghe's picture
Samantha Amerasinghe, a guest blogger, is an economist for the Thematic Research team at Standard Chartered. 
Giving women access to the skills and qualifications in areas where jobs will be created is vital. Photo: Dominic Chavez/ World Bank

Dubbed the ‘fourth industrial revolution’, technology disruption could be a key growth driver for economies over the coming years. But for women, advances in technology also pose a threat, as many of their jobs could be displaced. A perfect storm of technological trends, from mobile internet and cloud technology to ‘big data’ and the ‘internet of things’, means that, as new work trends evolve, existing gender inequalities could worsen further.

Making the future of work more inclusive and equitable

Siddhartha Raja's picture
Public policies could shape how the costs of digitization can be managed, to counter inequality and mitigate the costs for the poorest. Photo: Dominic Chavez/World Bank

There is much speculation about what share of jobs might be automated by increasingly smart machines. One estimate suggests that countries such as the U.S. would see almost half of today’s jobs disappearing, while another estimate suggests that this might be just about one in ten jobs. But less is known about who will lose their jobs due to these transitions. And more critically, what might happen to the bottom 40 percent of the population of emerging countries that have only recently been exposed to basic digital technologies? Will they gain from technological progress, or will they face the negative effects of both exclusion and of others—countries or the better off—pulling ahead?

Can urban slums help people work their way out of poverty?

Ivan Turok's picture
Ivan Turok, guest blogger, is Executive Director at the Human Sciences Research Council in South Africa, Editor-in-Chief of the journal ‘Regional Studies’, Honorary Professor at the University of Glasgow, and Chairman of the City Planning Commission for Durban
The interactions between three phenomena - place, people and economy - are bound to exercise a decisive influence on whether informal settlements help or hinder human progress. Photo: Scott Wallace/ World Bank

About one in three urban residents (over 900 million people) in developing markets live in informal settlements. Do these slums help lift people out of poverty by providing affordable entry points to access urban assets, services and livelihoods? Or do they confine people to enduring hardship and vulnerability in squalid and unsafe environments with little prospect of upward mobility?

A tale of twin demographics: Youth in cities

Nicole Goldin's picture
60% of urban populations will be under the age of 18 by 2030.  How can we harness youth potential as a growth engine for cities? Photo: Arne Hoel/ World Bank

This week thousands of policy-makers, experts, NGOs and urban-minded citizens of all stripes are convening in Quito, Ecuador to discuss the New Urban Agenda at Habitat III – a significant global convening that occurs every 20 years. And, in a couple weeks, amid the costumes and candy, ghosts and goblins of Halloween, the world will mark UN World Cities Day on October 31st. For good reason, youth are part of the conversation.  In today’s global landscape, two demographic patterns should stand out:  rapid urbanization and large youth populations.  These patterns are especially robust across developing nations.  Already the worlds’ cities host half of its citizens, and Asia and Africa are expected to account for 90% of urban growth. While growing, cities have also become younger – many of the world’s nearly four billion people under the age of 30 live in urban areas, and according to UN-HABITAT, it is estimated that 60% of urban populations will be under the age of 18 by 2030.

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