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Labor and Social Protection

While routines are comforting, they can also be job killers

Hernan Winkler's picture
The rapid adoption of digital technologies tends to benefit workers with skills that are difficult to replace with a computer, such as creativity, inter-personal skills or leadership. Photo: Sarah Farhat/ World Bank

 In the changing nature of work, diplomas are important, but skills are invaluable.

Being a teacher in Norway may require a very different set of skills than being a teacher in Africa, even though the job title is the same. For example, while teachers in the developed world may need to have digital or foreign language skills, these attributes may not be as essential to become an effective teacher in the rest of the world.

Developing jobs-focused lending operations

Sonia Madhvani's picture


We spoke with David Robalino, former Manager of the Jobs Group of the Social Protection and Jobs Global Practice. He discusses his report “Lending for Jobs Operations” that describes a general framework to inform the design of a new generation of World Bank lending operations. These operations have explicit objectives to either create jobs, improve the quality of existing jobs, or increase access to jobs for vulnerable populations.
 
He also describes tools that the Jobs Group has built to support jobs focused lending operations including the “Monitoring and Evaluation of Jobs Operations Guide,”  and “Economic Analysis of Jobs Investment Projects.”


Follow the World Bank Jobs Group on Twitter @wbg_jobs.
 

Four key trends in Economic Inclusion Programs

Ines Arevalo's picture
Economic inclusion programs provide a “big push” to help the extreme poor and other vulnerable people move into sustainable livelihoods, and can play an important part in poverty reduction. Photo: Maria Fleischmann / World Bank

Targeted household-level economic inclusion programs are on the rise:  nearly 100 programs across 43 countries have reached an estimated 14 million people to date, according to the Partnership for Economic Inclusion’s (PEI) 2018 State of the Sector report. These programs provide a “big push” to help the extreme poor and other vulnerable people move into sustainable livelihoods, and can play an important part in poverty reduction and the new “social contract”, as noted in a recent blog.

How can we measure success of jobs projects?

Siv Tokle's picture
Many development projects are tackling jobs challenges, but the lack of resources available on jobs measurement has often discouraged project teams from including jobs in their project objectives or results frameworks. (Photo: Sarah Farhat)

Let’s face it: assessing the results of a development project can be as complex as designing and implementing it. This is particularly true for projects that aim to create more and better jobs for all population groups and often work across sectors: how do we measure the number of newly created jobs through a private sector development project? Or the increase in earnings for young women and men who participated in a skills training, benefited from a coaching, or received stipends to help them move from low to higher quality jobs? Wouldn’t it be great to have a common terminology and definitions, and a set of ready-to-use tools to standardize the measurement of jobs outcomes?

How innovative financing can support entrepreneurship and sustainable livelihoods

Michelle Kaffenberger's picture
A fruit and vegetable stand in Kampala. Photo: Arne Hoel / World Bank

According to The Africa Competitiveness Report 2017, Africa is forecasted to produce just 100 million new jobs by 2035, while the working age population is projected to grow by more than 450 million. The fastest population growth will occur in the 15 to 35-year-old demographic.  This growing working-age population presents both an opportunity and a potential risk to Africa’s future prosperity. To ensure these new workers engage in productive livelihoods and prevent significant increases in extreme poverty and civil unrest, governments will need to enable job creation, including scaling cost-effective livelihood development programs targeting the extreme poor. Described below is a cost-effective approach which is yielding promising results and scaling through results-based financing.

Five new insights on how agriculture can help reduce poverty

Luc Christiaensen's picture
Also available in: Français 
A Cambodian farmer
A Cambodian farmer - Photo: Chor Sokunthea / World Bank

The view that a productive agriculture is critical for employment creation and poverty reduction is now widely shared within the development community. Yet, this has not always been the case. In the run up to the 2008 world food price crisis, many development practitioners, government officials and economists doubted whether agriculture could still play this role, especially in Africa. Agro-pessimism had set in during the 1990s and 2000s, with a decline in policy attention and agricultural investment.  The food price spikes of 2008 brought a realization that more needed to be done to strengthen agriculture in developing countries.

Unveiling new paths to create more Jobs for the Poor

Maria Laura Sanchez Puerta's picture
Also available in: Français
Onion field in Northern Côte d’Ivoire - Photo by Raphaela Karlen / World Bank

One out of ten people in the world —around 766 million people— still lived below the extreme poverty line in 2013. Most of them, 80 percent, live in rural areas and have very low productivity jobs. Improving jobs and earnings opportunities for these poor and vulnerable workers is at the core of the World Bank Group agenda and it requires holistic economic inclusion initiatives to move them into sustainable livelihoods.

Simple strategies that work for job seekers

Rachel Coleman's picture
Also available in: Français
Action planning and the use of reference letters are two strategies that work for job seekers to improve their search effectiveness and employment outcomes. Moreover, reference letters have an important impact for women job seekers, who often face additional constraints stemming from differential access to key resources. (Photo: Dominic Chavez / World Bank)


Finding a job is a challenging process ---and it can be especially difficult and overwhelming for youth and people entering the labor market for the first time. Youth unemployment rates in Sub-Saharan Africa are double those of adult unemployment for both men and women. Estimates show that 11 million youth will enter the labor market in Sub-Saharan Africa each year for the coming decade. This offers the potential to dramatically reduce poverty. But to make the most of this opportunity, young people need to engage in productive employment that fuels economic growth. In this blog, we present two simple and effective strategies to support job seekers to find employment.

Can Ghana’s extreme poor be graduated?

Suleiman Namara's picture
A stronger focus on human capital investments of children from these households with a particular focus on skills for future jobs will be key. (Photo: Arne Hoel / World Bank)


Ghana was the first country in Sub-Saharan Africa to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG1) target of halving extreme poverty by 2015. A share of the population living in poverty decreased from 52% in 1991 to 24% in 2012. Ghana is eager to lead the way in Africa again, but this time to graduate extreme poor households, out of poverty. The current policy debates are around graduating in about three to four years some 8.4 % of households living in extreme poverty. But to what occupations?

Creating opportunities for young women through youth employment programs

Jose Manuel Romero's picture
Innovative programs can respond to gender disparities in youth employment. Photo: Dominic Chavez/ World Bank. 

The disadvantages young women face in the labor market and in entrepreneurship in developing countries are not only substantial and complex, but they quickly compound. A plethora of forces drive gender disparities in youth employment: lack of opportunities to develop the skills demanded by the labor market, family or social pressure dissuading them from entering desirable jobs or male-dominated sectors, a detrimental work environment, or a lack of available services such as childcare might make achieving success an uphill battle. Yet innovative youth employment programs can respond to gender issues. Below are three examples presented in a recent virtual workshop held by the Solutions for Youth Employment (S4YE) coalition with members of its Impact Portfolio community.

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