Technology and the internet are probably the first things that come to mind when you think about the future of work for young people; not agriculture or farming. This makes historic sense, as agriculture sheds labor when countries develop. And the traditional ways of producing food do not look particularly sexy. Yet, technology and the internet are also opening up opportunities for agriculture, and urbanization and changing diets are calling for new ways to process, market and consume our foods. So, can agriculture provide job opportunities for youth?
Jobs and Development
"Writing laws is easy, but governing is difficult," wrote Leo Tolstoy in War and Peace. We agree.
Our recently finished study highlights how differences in the enforcement of a strict labor code across Russia’s numerous administrative regions has affected hiring and firing decisions. More specifically, we examine how the varying capacity to enforce the labor code affected labor adjustment by firms in response to industry-wide surges and slumps.
We walked into the largish conference room in the Baghdati municipality building. This small town of about five thousand people is in western Georgia, in the Caucasus. It was freezing cold, and the recent snowfall had deposited a crisp, beautiful white sheet all around. Not too different from my thoughts at the time; a blank sheet, waiting to hear from a collection of small businesses.
The topic: if and how these businesses use the internet.
Janine Berg, guest blogger, is a Senior Economist at the International Labour Organization (ILO)
Efforts to extend social security to workers in non-standard employment and to build a social protection floor are critical for reducing poverty and part of the challenge of addressing informal employment.
On December 14th and 15th donor and borrower country representatives of the World Bank Group will meet in Yogyakarta, Indonesia to finalize details for the 18th replenishment of IDA. The final agreement on IDA18 is expected to usher in a new era for IDA, the Bank’s fund for the poorest, dramatically increasing the level of financing and the potential for impact on development for the world’s poorest countries.
Central to the discussions on IDA over the past year has been the issue of jobs – how to deliver more jobs to meet the demands of a growing youth population; how best to improve job quality, particularly for the vast majority of workers in IDA countries who struggle in subsistence-level self-employment and other forms of informal employment; and how to make jobs more inclusive to women, youth, and populations in remote and lagging regions.
Dubbed the ‘fourth industrial revolution’, technology disruption could be a key growth driver for economies over the coming years. But for women, advances in technology also pose a threat, as many of their jobs could be displaced. A perfect storm of technological trends, from mobile internet and cloud technology to ‘big data’ and the ‘internet of things’, means that, as new work trends evolve, existing gender inequalities could worsen further.
Zambia is currently under pressure to increase the pace of the economic transformation to create more productive jobs. Despite rapid economic growth from 2000-2013, the country is struggling to provide the kind of jobs needed to help spur sustainable growth and development. The landlocked country is also one of Africa’s youngest countries by median age, and youth (aged 15-24) who are a significant and increasing share of the working population, are finding it hard to get jobs.
There is much speculation about what share of jobs might be automated by increasingly smart machines. One estimate suggests that countries such as the U.S. would see almost half of today’s jobs disappearing, while another estimate suggests that this might be just about one in ten jobs. But less is known about who will lose their jobs due to these transitions. And more critically, what might happen to the bottom 40 percent of the population of emerging countries that have only recently been exposed to basic digital technologies? Will they gain from technological progress, or will they face the negative effects of both exclusion and of others—countries or the better off—pulling ahead?
After three and half years of work, we have finally completed our systematic review of youth employment programs. Many thanks to the co-authors who did the heavy lifting (Jose Manuel Romero, Jonathan Stöterau, Felix Weidenkaff and Marc Witte). The paper was presented at our recent Jobs and Development Conference. The team went over 40,000 papers to eventually find 103 that reported on credible impact evaluations of youth employment programs.
Jobs are key to ending poverty and development practitioners, policymakers, academics, and business leaders agree that measuring jobs is important. While data on the number of jobs being created is important, it only tells a small part of the story.