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Jobs and Development

Retreat from mandatory pension funds in Eastern and Central Europe

Agnieszka Chłoń-Domińczak's picture
Over the next few decades, the consequences of an ageing population will be particularly visible in Central and Eastern Europe. These developments were behind the multi-pillar pension systems reforms at the end of 1990s and at the beginning of the century. After the financial and fiscal crisis of 2008, these reforms were slowed down and partially or fully reversed. In our recent study of this retreat from mandatory pension funds in Central and Eastern European countries, we look at the causes and consequences of these changes.
 

Opportunity entrepreneurs are key to jobs and growth

Madhur Jha's picture
What makes some entrepreneurs grow their businesses and employ hundreds, or even thousands, of people? Knowing this is crucial for all governments keen to drive economic growth. For economic development, it is important to focus on opportunity entrepreneurs instead of subsistence entrepreneurs. They are likely to grow their business faster, employ more people, and introduce innovation that could help fill important gaps in the market, while boosting productivity in the economy.
 

Underlying determinants: the starting point on the path to youth employment

Matt Hobson's picture
On May 1st, the world marks International Worker’s Day. Sadly, hundreds of millions of young people have little to celebrate. Instead, they struggle to find work or secure a decent livelihood – and right now, their options don’t look to be getting much better. We have developed a conceptual pathway to employment that shows how all stakeholders can work together to achieve youth employment at scale.  At the same time, our framework recognizes that youth take their first steps on the pathway beset with what we may call ‘underlying determinants’ or characteristics that can shape choices or affect their opportunities.
 

Improving compliance with minimum wage standards

Uma Rani's picture
Minimum wage standards have the force of law. Yet, establishing a legally binding minimum wage does not in itself mean that these are applied in practice. In reality, compliance is always less than perfect in both advanced and developing countries. Understanding which factors determine compliance is important. Our analysis shows that compliance is affected by both the level at which minimum wages are set relative to average wages, as well as by institutional factors.

Against xenophobia and national barriers—in light of the refugee crisis in Europe

Olga Nottmeyer's picture
Whether—and how—to integrate asylum seekers features prominently on the political agenda in so many European countries. The situation in Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq and other countries facing conflict, civil war, and terrorism make it impossible to ignore the challenges associated with the mass migration of people from these areas. Ignoring the crisis is no solution; neither is xenophobic rhetoric or building more fences and tightening border controls. There is, however, a sensible approach that would certainly help with integrating refugees in the destination countries‘ labor markets.
 

Jobs and economic transformation for IDA countries

Thomas Farole's picture
Policymakers the world over are concerned about jobs. It is often the first thing they talk about when World Bank delegations meet them, and the last message they leave us with on our way back to Washington. So it should come as no surprise that jobs has been chosen as one of the central themes of the IDA-18 replenishment round.
 
 

Moving towards a universal basic income

Andy Stern's picture
In 2010, I seemed to be at the top of my game. But after nearly fifteen years at the helm of SEIU I had lost my ability to predict labor’s future. By 2010, the economy was changing and fragmenting at such warp speed that I couldn’t see where it — or labor — was headed. At the end of that year I embarked on what became a four-year journey to discover the future of jobs, work, and the American Dream. If there are significantly fewer jobs and less work available in the future, how will people make a living, spend their time, and find purpose in their lives? I believe there is a solution – the universal basic income or UBI.

Micro businesses go global

Brian Bieron's picture
In recent years, a quiet revolution has been brewing because of ecommerce platforms and the digital marketplace. Barriers to accessing larger and more robust markets are receding and small business owners and entrepreneurs from all around the world are beginning to reach consumers in new ways. This further bolsters the argument that the technology-enabled platform commerce model, which significantly reduces the cost of doing business, is a highly inclusive model of trade.


 
 

Human development is the key to restoring global growth

Ted Chu's picture

The global slowdown since the Global Financial Crisis has both cyclical and structural causes, both of which may take years to work out. But at the same time, history tells us that the seeds for spectacular growth are often sown during recessions and depressions. Our job as development agents is to identify these seeds and nurture them into full bloom.

Does formal work pay?

Michael Weber's picture
The disincentives to accepting a formal job often outweigh the incentives. Our research shows a positive correlation between measures of disincentives for formal work and the incidence of being informal. The formalization tax rate and the marginal effective tax rate are useful measures. The higher these measures are, the more likely workers - especially low-wage workers - will be informal. Policymakers need measures that help them understand the disincentives associated with formal work if they are to design policies that encourage formalization.
 

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