Throughout Latin America, youth who are neither working nor in school are often labeled ninis, from the Spanish phrase “ni estudia ni trabaja" (neither studies nor works). One in five youth in the region is a nini, and the increase in their number since 1992 has been entirely due to young men. Read more in the new paper: "Out of School and Out of Work : Risk and Opportunities for Latin America’s Ninis"
Latin America & Caribbean
The group of Latin Americans still vulnerable to fall back into poverty has moved tantalizingly close to middle class status in the past decade. The so-called vulnerable, who have escaped poverty but have not yet made it to the middle class, remain the largest socio-economic group in Latin America. In fact, their share of the population increased slightly (38 percent in 2013, up from 35 percent in 2003). But, importantly, their living conditions improved significantly in the same period. The incomes of the vulnerable are today much closer to those of the middle class – even if their growth in incomes was not enough to cross over to the middle class.
"Did poverty drop in Latin America because of good policies or good luck?" I am often asked this question after I tell people that poverty in the region fell from 40 to 25 percent between 2003 and 2013. The answer is a bit of both.
As the chart below demonstrates, there is no question that the poor living in countries that were favored by high commodity prices benefited more than those in other countries. More to the point, as the chart also highlights, the tremendous rise in revenues coming from the boom in commodity prices led to an increase in labor income that helps explain much of the poverty reduction seen in commodity exporting countries.
To me, however, an interesting story hides behind the line of the non-commodity exporting countries. Even without the benefit of the commodity boom wave, those countries also managed to reduce poverty by a respectable 7 percentage points.
The team behind the World Bank’s LAC Equity Lab is starting this new blog series to showcase our favorite charts and visuals that help tell the story of recent developments in poverty and equity in Latin America and the Caribbean. We welcome your comments and ideas, and invite you to explore our LAC Equity Lab and World Bank Poverty websites to learn more.
In this first installment, we are tackling a pressing issue for the region – income growth and its implications on inequality.
Income growth in Latin America has stopped being pro-poor during the slowdown
Source: SEDLAC (World Bank and CEDLAS). Note: growth incidence curves (GIC) show the annualized growth rate of income for every percentile of the income distribution and are calculated using pooled harmonized data from 17 countries. In order to analyze the same set of countries every year, interpolation was applied when country data were not available for a given year.
Trade blocs are intergovernmental agreements intended to bring economic benefits to their members by reducing barriers to trade.
Some well known trade blocs include the European Union, NAFTA and the African Union. Through encouraging foreign direct investment, increasing competition, and boosting exports, trade blocs can have numerous benefits for their members.
In Latin America, Mercosur and the more recently formed Pacific Alliance blocs together represent about 93 percent of the region's GDP at 2014 market prices. Who participates in these trade blocs and how do they compare?
Size, membership and performance of Mercosur and The Pacific Alliance
The Pacific Alliance is a Latin American trade bloc formed in 2011 among Chile, Colombia, Mexico, and Peru. Together the four countries have a combined population of about 221.3 million and GDP of $2.1 trillion. The Southern Common Market (Mercosur) created in 1991, includes Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Together the five Mercosur countries have 285.0 million inhabitants and GDP of $3.5 trillion.
One of the areas intended to benefit from these agreements, trade within the blocs, accounts for about 4 percent of the Pacific Alliance's total trade and about 14 percent in Mercosur.
March 22nd is World Water Day. We’ve already covered 7 things you may not know about water so here a 5 more facts showing the links between water and health, energy, the climate, agriculture and urbanization. But first:
This is every river and waterway in the contiguous United States
Image via Wired
Nelson Minar produced this incredible map using data from the USGS National Hydrography Dataset. It includes some waterways that are dry most of the year but still have defined creek beds, and like veins running through the human body it shows how fundamental water is to the country’s ecosystem.
This Sunday, International Women’s Day celebrates the achievements of women, while calling for greater gender equality. Ahead of several high-profile campaigns and initiatives launching this week and next, I thought I’d highlight some gender data and trends that you might not know about.
Note: as these data are from different sources, some of the members of regional groupings may differ between charts, please refer to the original sources for details.
1) 91% of the world’s girls completed primary school
In 2012, more girls completed primary school than ever before. Since 2000, there’s been progress across the world but large disparities remain between regions and countries. Only 66% of girls in Sub Saharan Africa completed primary school in 2012, and in three countries this figure was under 35%. Educating girls is one of the best investments we can make and by 2015, developing countries as a whole are likely to reach gender parity (about the same numbers of boys and girls) in terms of primary and secondary enrollment.
Open data for economic growth continues to create buzz in all circles. We wrote about it ourselves on this blog site earlier in the year. You can barely utter the phrase without somebody mentioning the McKinsey report and the $3 trillion open data market. The Economist gave the subject credibility with its talk about a 'new goldmine.' Omidyar published a report a few months ago that made $13 trillion the new $3 trillion. The wonderful folks at New York University's GovLab launched the OpenData500 to much fanfare. The World Bank Group got into the act with this study. The Shakespeare report was among the first to bring attention to open data's many possibilities. Furthermore, governments worldwide now routinely seem to insert economic growth in their policy recommendations about open data – and the list is long and growing.
Geographic distribution of companies we surveyed. Here is the complete list.
We hope to publish a detailed report shortly but here meanwhile are a few of the regional findings in greater detail.
The under-5 mortality rate worldwide has fallen by 49% since 1990, according to new child mortality estimates and press release launched today. This information is also summarized in the report Levels and Trends in Child Mortality 2014 by the United Nations Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UN IGME). Put another way, about 17,000 fewer children under-5 died each day in 2013 than in 1990.
These rates are falling faster than at any other time during the past two decades: from a 1.2% annual reduction during 1990-1995 to a 4% reduction during 2005-2013.
More children making it to their fifth birthday
The major improvements in under-5 child survival since 1990 are attributable to better access to affordable, quality health care, as well as the expansion of health programs that reach the most vulnerable newborns and children.
The 49% drop – from 90 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1990, to 46 deaths in 2013 – means that a baby born today has a dramatically better chance of survival to age 5 compared with a baby born in 1990.
More progress needed to achieve the global Millennium Development Goal 4 target
Four out of 6 World Bank Group regions are on track to achieve Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4), which is to reduce the under-5 mortality rate by two-thirds by 2015. Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia are two regions where the rates of decline remain insufficient to reach MDG 4 on a global scale. In 2013, the highest under-5 mortality rate was in Sub-Saharan Africa, where there were 92 deaths per 1,000 live births or where 1 in 11 children die before reaching the age of 5.