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Sustainable Communities

Machine-readable open data: how it’s applicable to developing countries

Audrey Ariss's picture

Where should telecom providers place their towers and what frequencies should they use?

How can governments best calculate commodity imports to ensure food security?

How can communities better manage areas at risks of floods?

These are just some of the questions that organizations around the world try to answer by using open government data — free, publicly available data that anyone can access and use, without restrictions. Yet around the world, much government data is yet to be made available, and still less in machine-readable [1]formats. In many low and lower-middle income countries, finding and using open data is often challenging. It may take a complicated request process to get data from the government, and the data may come in the form of paper-based documents that are very hard to analyze. A new study looks to better understand how organizations in low and lower-middle income countries utilize machine-readable open data.

In producing the study, the Center for Open Data Enterprise, supported by the World Bank, interviewed dozens of businesses and nonprofit organizations in 20 countries. The organizations were identified through the Open Data Impact Map, a public database of organizations that use open data around the world, and a resource of the Open Data for Development (OD4D) Network. Over 50 use cases were developed as part of this study, each an example of open data use in a low or lower-middle income country.


 

Chart: Public Transport in African Cities Often Unaffordable

Tariq Khokhar's picture
Also available in: 中文

The typical household in many African cities cannot afford public transport fares. According to a new report, public transport in Sub-Saharan Africa's major cities is dominated by informal minibuses, and is expensive relative to household budgets making it largely unaffordable on a daily basis, especially for the poorest.

Read more in the new report "Africa’s Cities - Opening Doors to the World"

Chart: Latin America Has the World's Highest Homicide Rates

Tariq Khokhar's picture
Also available in: Español | العربية | 中文

Latin American and the Caribbean accounts for only 8 percent of the world’s population, but for 37 percent of the world’s homicides. Eight out of the 10 most violent countries in the world are in the region, where there were an average of 24 homicides per 100,000 people per year in 2012. Read more in "Stop the Violence in Latin America"

What can you do with a high-resolution population map?

Kiwako Sakamoto's picture

Population density is one of the most important statistics for development efforts across many sectors, and since early 2016 we’ve been collaborating with Facebook on evaluating a new source of high-resolution population data that sheds light on previously unmapped populations.

As mentioned in the Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) team’s blog post, Facebook Connectivity Lab announced last week the public release of high-resolution population maps for Ghana, Haiti, Malawi, South Africa, and Sri Lanka, jointly produced with the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN).

With the building footprints detected by artificial intelligence (AI) over high-resolution commercial satellite imagery, the data sets provide estimates of population at 30m spatial resolution, making these maps the highest-resolution population maps ever produced. This is only possible through recent breakthroughs in computer vision due to deep learning algorithms and technological development of computer processors, as well as the increasing availability of high-resolution commercial satellite imagery. 

Image 1: Naivasha, Kenya.

DigitalGlobe satellite (upper left), gridded population of the world v4 from CIESIN (upper right), WorldPop (bottom left), output from Facebook model (bottom right).

A first look at Facebook’s high-resolution population maps

Talip Kilic's picture

Facebook recently announced the public release of unprecedentedly high-resolution population maps for Ghana, Haiti, Malawi, South Africa, and Sri Lanka. These maps have been produced jointly by the Facebook Connectivity Lab and the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), and provide data on the distribution of human populations at 30-meter spatial resolution. Facebook conducted this research to inform the development of wireless communication technologies and platforms to bring Internet to the globally unconnected as part of the internet.org initiative.

Figure 1 conveys the spatial resolution of the Facebook dataset, unmatched in its ability to identify settlements. We are looking at approximately a 1 km2 area covering a rural village in Malawi. Previous efforts to map population would have represented this area with only a single grid cell (LandScan), or 100 cells (WorldPop), but Facebook has achieved the highest level of spatial refinement yet, with 900 cells. The blue areas identify the populated pixels in Facebook’s impressive map of the Warm Heart of Africa.
 

Figure 1: Digital Globe Imagery from Rural Malawi Overlaid with Facebook Populated Cells

Facebook’s computer vision approach is a very fast method to produce spatially-explicit country-wide population estimates. Using their method, Facebook successfully generated at-scale, high-resolution insights on the distribution of buildings, unmatched by any other remote sensing effort to date.  These maps demonstrate the value of artificial intelligence for filling data gaps and creating new datasets, and they could provide a promising complement to household surveys and censuses. 

Beginning in March 2016, we started collaborating with Facebook to assess the precision of the maps and explore their potential uses in development efforts. Here, we describe the analyses undertaken to date by the Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) team at the World Bank to compare the high-resolution population projections against the ground truth data. Among the countries that were part of the initial release, Malawi was of particular interest for the validation exercise given the range of data at our disposal.

Chart: Tourism Reaches all-time high in Peru

Erin Scronce's picture

Peru welcomed 3.2 million tourists in 20 14, the highest number to date. In some regions of the country, like Cusco, tourism is a potential economic lifeline for local people, who can profit from a variety of businesses serving tourists. In 2012, the World Bank Group began working with The Government of Peru to streamline the processes around opening tourism-related businesses because excessive regulations and red tape were holding up investments in new businesses for years. Ultimately, the project shaved 3 years off the business registration process and eliminated 150 unnecessary regulations. With the streamlined regulations in place, investments in hotels in Peru are on the rise. Between 2015 and 2018, Peru is expecting US$1.2 billion in investments in new hotels, an increase from US$550 million during the period 2010-2014.

 Find out more here.

Chart: 25 Years of Growth in The World's Largest Cities

Tariq Khokhar's picture
Also available in: العربية | 中文

By 2030, two thirds of the world will live in cities. The world's 12 largest city areas are each home to over 15 million people, and over the last 25 years, cities such as Delhi, Shanghai and Beijing have tripled in size.

Chart: Over Half the World Lives in Cities

Tariq Khokhar's picture
Also available in: 中文

Over half the world lives in cities, and those cities are responsible for over 80% of global GDP. However, the high density of people, jobs, and assets which make cities so successful, also makes them vulnerable to the wide range of natural and manmade shocks and stresses increasingly affecting them today. Read more about how the World Bank is investing in urban reslience. 

Charts: Where do Refugees Originate From and Where are they Hosted?

Tariq Khokhar's picture
Also available in: 中文 | العربية | Español

"Forcibly Displaced" - a new report out today, offers a new perspective on the global crisis and how humanitarian and development actors can work together to support the individuals affected. The report draws on sources including the UNHCR's Global Trends 2015 which shows that 9 in 10 of the world's refugees originate from 20 countries, and 9 in 10 are hosted by about 40 countries.

Chart: Most Refugees Don't Live in Camps

Tariq Khokhar's picture
Also available in: العربية | Français | 中文

About a quarter of the world's refugees live in camps. They are largely concentrated in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Most refugees in other regions live in individual accommodation. Forced displacement is largely and increasingly an urban phenomenon, with refugees living in cities and towns where they seek security, anonymity, better access to services, and job opportunities. Read more in the new report  "Forcibly Displaced: Toward a development approach supporting refugees, the internally displaced, and their hosts"
 

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